Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

Split Viewer

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 243-251

Published online April 30, 2024

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Distribution Characteristics of Land and River Aggregate Resources in Yeongam Area by Deposition Period

Jin Cheul Kim, Sei Sun Hong*, Jin-Young Lee, Ju Yong Kim

Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to : *hss@kigam.re.kr

Received: March 7, 2024; Revised: April 17, 2024; Accepted: April 18, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, a surface geological survey was first conducted to investigate aggregate resources in the Yeongam area of Jeollanam-do, and a drilling survey was conducted in the lower part of the surface, which was difficult to identify through a surface geological survey, to determine the spatial distribution of aggregates. Drilling sites were selected considering the topographical development and Quaternary alluvium characteristics of the study area, and river aggregate drilling surveys were conducted at a total of 5 points and land aggregate drilling surveys were conducted at a total of 28 points. Borehole core sediments were classified into seven sedimentary units to determine whether they could be used as aggregates, and optically stimulated luminescence dating was performed on representative boreholes to measure the depositional period for each sedimentary unit. As a result of the study, most of the Yeongam area had a very wide river basin, so it was estimated that there would be a large amount of aggregate, but the amount of aggregate was evaluated to be very small compared to other cities and counties. Most of the unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the Yeongam area are composed of blue-grey marine clay with a vertical thickness of more than 10 m. The sand-gravel layer corresponding to the aggregate section is distributed in the lower part of the marine clay, thinly covering the bedrock weathering zone. This is because the amount of aggregates themselves is small and most of the aggregates are distributed at a depth of 10 m below the surface, which is currently difficult to develop, so the possibility of developing aggregates is evaluated to be very low. As a result of dating, it can be seen that the blue-grey marine clay layer is an intertidal sedimentary layer formed as the sea level rose rapidly about 10,000 years ago. The deposition process continued from 10,000 years ago to the present, and as a result, a very thick clay layer was deposited. This clay layer was formed very dominantly for about 6,000 to 8,000 years, and the sand-gravel layer in the section where aggregates deposited in the Pleistocene period can exist was measured to have been deposited at about 13.0 to 19.0 ka, and about 50 ka, showing that it was deposited as paleo-fluvial deposits before the marine transgression process.

Keywords aggregate, Yeongam, OSL, sedimentary unit, Quaternary

영암지역 육상 및 하천 골재의 퇴적 시기별 분포 특성

김진철 · 홍세선* · 이진영 · 김주용

한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

요 약

이번 연구에서는 전라남도 영암지역의 골재 자원조사를 위하여 먼저 지표지질조사를 실시하였고 지표지질조사로는 파악이 어려운 지표 하부에 대하여 시추조사를 실시하여 골재의 공간적인 분포를 파악하였다. 조사 지역의 지형 발달 및 제 4기 충적작용 특성들을 고려하여 시추지점을 선정하였고, 총 5 지점에서 하천 골재 시추조사와 총 28 지점에서 육상 골재 시추조사가 수행되었다. 시추코어 퇴적물은 골재로써의 활용 가능 여부를 파악하기 위하여 7개의 퇴적 단위로 분류하였으며, 대표 시추공을 대상으로 광여기루미네선스(OSL) 연대측정을 실시하여 퇴적 단위별 퇴적 시기를 측정하였다. 연구 결과, 영암지역 대부분은 하천 유역이 매우 넓어서 골재가 다량 부존될 것으로 추정되었지만 골재 부존량은 다른 시군에 비하여 매우 적은 편으로 평가되었다. 영암 지역 대부분의 미고화 퇴적층은 10 m 이상의 수직적 두께를 보이는 청회색 해성 점토로 구성되는데, 골재 부존구간에 해당하는 모래질 자갈층은 해성 점토 하부의 기반암 풍화대 위를 얇게 덮으며 분포한다. 이는 골재 부존 구간의 부존량 자체가 적고 대부분의 골재 부존 구간이 현재 개발이 어려운 지표하부 10 m 아래 심도에 위치하기 때문에 골재 개발 가능성도 매우 낮은 것으로 평가된다. 연대측정 결과, 청회색 해성 점토층은 약 10 ka 전부터 해수면이 급상승하면서 형성된 조간대성 퇴적층으로 퇴적 작용은 현재까지 지속되었고 그 결과로 매우 두꺼운 점토층이 형성되었음을 알 수 있다. 이러한 점토층은 약 6~8 ka동안 매우 우세하게 퇴적되었다. 골재 부존 가능 구간의 모래질 자갈층은 약 13.0~19.0 ka, 그리고 약 50 ka에 퇴적된 것으로 추정되어 해침과정 이전의 플라이스토세 고기 하성 퇴적층으로 해석된다.

주요어 골재자원, 시추, 미고화 퇴적층, 연대측정, 조간대

Article

Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 243-251

Published online April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Distribution Characteristics of Land and River Aggregate Resources in Yeongam Area by Deposition Period

Jin Cheul Kim, Sei Sun Hong*, Jin-Young Lee, Ju Yong Kim

Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to:*hss@kigam.re.kr

Received: March 7, 2024; Revised: April 17, 2024; Accepted: April 18, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, a surface geological survey was first conducted to investigate aggregate resources in the Yeongam area of Jeollanam-do, and a drilling survey was conducted in the lower part of the surface, which was difficult to identify through a surface geological survey, to determine the spatial distribution of aggregates. Drilling sites were selected considering the topographical development and Quaternary alluvium characteristics of the study area, and river aggregate drilling surveys were conducted at a total of 5 points and land aggregate drilling surveys were conducted at a total of 28 points. Borehole core sediments were classified into seven sedimentary units to determine whether they could be used as aggregates, and optically stimulated luminescence dating was performed on representative boreholes to measure the depositional period for each sedimentary unit. As a result of the study, most of the Yeongam area had a very wide river basin, so it was estimated that there would be a large amount of aggregate, but the amount of aggregate was evaluated to be very small compared to other cities and counties. Most of the unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the Yeongam area are composed of blue-grey marine clay with a vertical thickness of more than 10 m. The sand-gravel layer corresponding to the aggregate section is distributed in the lower part of the marine clay, thinly covering the bedrock weathering zone. This is because the amount of aggregates themselves is small and most of the aggregates are distributed at a depth of 10 m below the surface, which is currently difficult to develop, so the possibility of developing aggregates is evaluated to be very low. As a result of dating, it can be seen that the blue-grey marine clay layer is an intertidal sedimentary layer formed as the sea level rose rapidly about 10,000 years ago. The deposition process continued from 10,000 years ago to the present, and as a result, a very thick clay layer was deposited. This clay layer was formed very dominantly for about 6,000 to 8,000 years, and the sand-gravel layer in the section where aggregates deposited in the Pleistocene period can exist was measured to have been deposited at about 13.0 to 19.0 ka, and about 50 ka, showing that it was deposited as paleo-fluvial deposits before the marine transgression process.

Keywords aggregate, Yeongam, OSL, sedimentary unit, Quaternary

영암지역 육상 및 하천 골재의 퇴적 시기별 분포 특성

김진철 · 홍세선* · 이진영 · 김주용

한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

Received: March 7, 2024; Revised: April 17, 2024; Accepted: April 18, 2024

요 약

이번 연구에서는 전라남도 영암지역의 골재 자원조사를 위하여 먼저 지표지질조사를 실시하였고 지표지질조사로는 파악이 어려운 지표 하부에 대하여 시추조사를 실시하여 골재의 공간적인 분포를 파악하였다. 조사 지역의 지형 발달 및 제 4기 충적작용 특성들을 고려하여 시추지점을 선정하였고, 총 5 지점에서 하천 골재 시추조사와 총 28 지점에서 육상 골재 시추조사가 수행되었다. 시추코어 퇴적물은 골재로써의 활용 가능 여부를 파악하기 위하여 7개의 퇴적 단위로 분류하였으며, 대표 시추공을 대상으로 광여기루미네선스(OSL) 연대측정을 실시하여 퇴적 단위별 퇴적 시기를 측정하였다. 연구 결과, 영암지역 대부분은 하천 유역이 매우 넓어서 골재가 다량 부존될 것으로 추정되었지만 골재 부존량은 다른 시군에 비하여 매우 적은 편으로 평가되었다. 영암 지역 대부분의 미고화 퇴적층은 10 m 이상의 수직적 두께를 보이는 청회색 해성 점토로 구성되는데, 골재 부존구간에 해당하는 모래질 자갈층은 해성 점토 하부의 기반암 풍화대 위를 얇게 덮으며 분포한다. 이는 골재 부존 구간의 부존량 자체가 적고 대부분의 골재 부존 구간이 현재 개발이 어려운 지표하부 10 m 아래 심도에 위치하기 때문에 골재 개발 가능성도 매우 낮은 것으로 평가된다. 연대측정 결과, 청회색 해성 점토층은 약 10 ka 전부터 해수면이 급상승하면서 형성된 조간대성 퇴적층으로 퇴적 작용은 현재까지 지속되었고 그 결과로 매우 두꺼운 점토층이 형성되었음을 알 수 있다. 이러한 점토층은 약 6~8 ka동안 매우 우세하게 퇴적되었다. 골재 부존 가능 구간의 모래질 자갈층은 약 13.0~19.0 ka, 그리고 약 50 ka에 퇴적된 것으로 추정되어 해침과정 이전의 플라이스토세 고기 하성 퇴적층으로 해석된다.

주요어 골재자원, 시추, 미고화 퇴적층, 연대측정, 조간대

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.The topographic distribution map of the Yeongam area, the full-sized map of the Korean Peninsula was modified by Kim et al.(2012).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 243-251https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Location map of drilling survey of river(YAR) and land(YAL) aggregates in the Yeongam area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 243-251https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Photo of blue-gray intertidal clay sediments in core(YAL 10).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 243-251https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.The columnar section of the borehole from river aggregate drilling in the Yeongam area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 243-251https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.The columnar section of the borehole from land aggregate drilling in the Yeongam area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 243-251https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.The OSL ages of YAL10, YAL21 core sediments(Age results of YAL10 were derived from Kim et al., 2012).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 243-251https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.243

    Table 1 . Classification criteria for sedimentary layers applied to drill core logs.

    Classification of sedimentary layersDescription
    Topsoil landfill layerSurface soil as artificial cultivation or reclamation
    Clay layerLayer composed of sand grain size or less
    Sand layerLayer with a sand ratio of more than 80%
    Sand gravel layerLayer containing between 20 and 80% sand or gravel
    Gravel layerLayer containing more than 80% gravel
    Rock soilLayer composed of soil and gravel, without artificial activity, and with poor classification.
    Weathered bedrockBedrock

    Table 2 . Results of drilling survey of river aggregates in Yeongam area(unit: m).

    Core numberTop soilClaySandSand gravelGravelRock soilWeathered bedrockTotal drilling depthMajor aggregate thicknessDevelopable sand gravel thickness
    YAR010.02.00.00.00.00.01.03.00.00.0
    YAR020.014.30.00.00.00.00.715.00.00.0
    YAR031.015.60.00.00.00.00.417.00.00.0
    YAR040.316.81.01.60.00.00.320.02.60.0
    YAR050.69.90.80.00.00.00.712.00.80.0

    Table 3 . Results of drilling survey of land aggregates in Yeongam area(unit: m).

    Core numberTop soilClaySandSand gravelGravelRock soilWeathered bedrockTotal drilling depthThicknessMajor aggregate thicknessDevelopable sand gravel thickness
    YAL010.41.950.450.00.00.00.23.02.80.450.45
    YAL020.63.11.550.00.00.00.756.05.251.550.6
    YAL031.014.00.00.10.00.80.116.015.90.000.0
    YAL040.32.00.00.80.01.30.65.04.40.800.8
    YAL050.218.80.00.00.00.00.019.019.00.000.0
    YAL062.75.00.50.00.01.10.710.09.30.500.0
    YAL073.21.40.00.00.00.03.48.04.60.000.0
    YAL081.719.30.00.00.00.00.021.021.00.000.0
    YAL092.011.50.00.00.00.00.514.013.50.000.0
    YAL101.013.50.80.50.00.00.216.015.81.300.0
    YAL111.08.03.20.40.00.00.413.012.63.600.0
    YAL121.05.21.70.00.10.50.59.08.51.300.0
    YAL130.21.43.00.50.00.00.96.05.13.502.4
    YAL140.54.40.40.40.00.00.36.05.70.800.0
    YAL151.06.12.50.30.00.00.110.09.92.700.0
    YAL161.08.351.450.40.00.00.812.011.21.850.0
    YAL171.45.40.40.00.00.00.88.07.20.400.0
    YAL181.26.30.80.00.00.00.79.08.30.800.0
    YAL191.412.71.90.00.00.00.016.016.01.701.1
    YAL200.76.32.90.00.00.00.110.09.92.900.0
    YAL212.210.12.40.00.00.00.315.014.72.400.0
    YAL220.710.51.40.00.00.00.413.012.61.400.8
    YAL230.318.40.80.00.00.00.520.019.50.800.0
    YAL241.516.21.10.00.00.20.019.019.01.100.0
    YAL250.211.80.50.00.00.00.513.012.50.500.0
    YAL262.011.60.40.20.00.00.815.014.20.600.0
    YAL270.50.00.00.00.02.50.03.03.00.000.0
    YAL281.01.00.00.00.01.20.84.03.20.000.0

    *Major aggregates: section with an aggregate layer of 0.3m or more..


    Table 4 . Dose rate information, De values and OSL ages of YAL 10(Kim et al., 2012), YAL 21 core sediments, aThe water content is expressed as the weight of water divided by the weight of dry sediments, bAlpha dose rate was calculated using an a-value of 0.04±0.02(Ree-Jones, 1995)..

    Lab. NoWater Content (%)aDepth (cm)Alpha dose (Gy/ka)bBeta dose (Gy/ka)Gamma dose (Gy/ka)Cosmic dose (Gy/ka)Dose rate (Gy/ka)De (Gy)Age (ka)
    YAL10-146.8 ±52500.34 ± 0.171.94 ± 0.101.13 ± 0.060.15 ± 0.013.55 ± 0.214.6 ± 0.061.3 ± 0.1
    10-242.4 ±54500.34 ± 0.172.03 ± 0.111.14 ± 0.060.12 ± 0.013.62 ± 0.2123.3 ± 0.306.4 ± 0.4
    10-342.0 ±56500.34 ± 0.172.02 ± 0.111.13 ± 0.060.09 ± 0.03.59 ± 0.2125.9 ± 0.657.2 ± 0.5
    10-438.9 ±58500.36 ± 0.182.01 ± 0.111.15 ± 0.060.08 ± 0.03.60 ± 0.2225.8 ± 0.327.2 ± 0.5
    10-537.7 ±510500.40 ± 0.202.06 ± 0.121.20 ± 0.060.06 ± 0.03.73 ± 0.2428.4 ± 0.717.6 ± 0.5
    10-630.2 ±512500.42 ± 0.211.91 ± 0.111.19 ± 0.070.05 ± 0.03.57 ± 0.2538.2 ± 0.2610.7 ± 0.8
    10-712.7 ±514300.50 ± 0.252.59 ± 0.171.46 ± 0.090.04 ± 0.04.60 ± 0.3263.8 ± 0.4013.9 ± 1.0
    10-810.0 ±515300.73 ± 0.373.61 ± 0.242.02 ± 0.130.04 ± 0.06.42 ± 0.46121.9 ± 10.1819.0 ± 2.1
    YAL21-141.7 ±52500.37 ± 0.182.11 ± 0.121.22 ± 0.060.15 ± 0.013.84 ± 0.230.8 ± 0.020.2 ± 0.0
    21-256.3 ±54500.30 ± 0.151.83 ± 0.091.03 ± 0.050.12 ± 0.013.27 ± 0.1919.9 ± 0.596.1 ± 0.4
    21-346.8 ±56500.34 ± 0.171.96 ± 0.111.12 ± 0.060.09 ± 0.003.51 ± 0.2121.1 ± 0.156.0 ± 0.4
    21-443.6 ±58500.36 ± 0.182.02 ± 0.111.17 ± 0.060.08 ± 0.003.63 ± 0.2225.7 ± 0.177.1 ± 0.4
    21-528.0 ±510500.43 ± 0.221.93 ± 0.121.21 ± 0.070.06 ± 0.003.64 ± 0.2632.0 ± 0.298.8 ± 0.6
    21-69.0 ±512200.65 ± 0.333.07 ± 0.201.79 ± 0.110.05 ± 0.005.57 ± 0.40276.0 ± 5.6649.6 ± 3.7

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

    Stats or Metrics

    Share this article on

    • kakao talk
    • line

    Related articles in KSEEG

    Economic and Environmental Geology

    pISSN 1225-7281
    eISSN 2288-7962
    qr-code Download