Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 233-241

Published online April 30, 2024

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Study on Geological Distribution of Fluorine in Forest Aggregate within Korea

Yeong-Il Jeong1, Kun-Ki Kim2, Soon-Oh Kim3, Sang-Woo Lee4, Jin-Young Lee5,*

1Geochang Granite Research Center, Geochang 50103, Korea
2Stone Industry Division, Korea Forestry Promotion Institute, Daejeon 35209, Korea
3Department of Geology and Research Institute of Natural Science(RINS), Gyeongsang National University(GNU), Jinju 52828, Korea
4HS Environmental Technology Research Center, Hosung Inc., Jinju 52818, Korea
5Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to : *jylee@kigam.re.kr

Received: March 1, 2024; Revised: March 27, 2024; Accepted: April 3, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the geological distribution characteristics of fluorine in rocks, which can be a major resource of forest aggregates in Korea. Samples of forest aggregates were collected from 224 sites in 22 cities and counties for this study. The national background concentration was 344 mg/kg, which was significantly lower than the average fluorine concentration of crustal, which was 625 mg/kg, and slightly higher than the average fluorine concentration of world soil, which was 321 mg/kg. In terms of region and tectonic structure, fluorine concentrations were investigated to be highest in Gyeonggi-do(394 mg/kg) and Gyeonggi massif(396 mg/kg), respectively. The concentration distribution by the origin of the parent rock was in the order of metamorphic rock(362 mg/kg) > sedimentary rock(354 mg/kg) > igneous rock(328 mg/kg), and the concentration distribution by geologic ages was the highest in the Paleozoic at 394 mg/kg. The concentration distribution by rock types was in the order of diorite(515 mg/kg) > gneisses(377 mg/kg) > schists(344 mg/kg) > phyllite(306 mg/kg) > granites(305 mg/kg) > quartz porphyry(298 mg/kg). Consequently, it is speculated that gneisses and schists, Precambrian metamorphic rocks in the Gyeonggi massif that forms the crust of Gyeonggi-do, contain high fluorine concentrations.

Keywords fluorine, aggregate, forest aggregate, concentration distribution, Soil Contamination Warning Standard

산림골재 내 불소의 지질학적 분포 연구

정영일1 · 김건기2 · 김순오3 · 이상우4 · 이진영5,*

1(재)거창화강석연구센터
2한국임업진흥원 석재산업실
3경상국립대학교 자연과학대학 지질과학과 및 기초과학연구소
4(주)호성 HS환경기술연구소
5한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

요 약

본 연구는 우리나라 산림골재 주요 공급원이 될 수 있는 암석 내 불소의 지질학적 분포 특성을 조사하기 위해 22개 시군의 224개 지점에서 산림골재(암석) 시료를 채취하여 불소 농도를 조사하였다. 전국 불소 배경농도는 344 mg/kg으로 암석의 지각 평균 불소 농도인 625 mg/kg 보다 현저히 낮으며, 세계 토양 평균 불소 농도인 321 mg/kg 보다는 다소 높았다. 권역별 농도분포는 경기도 394 mg/kg, 강원도 336 mg/kg, 충청도 318 mg/kg, 경상도 289 mg/kg, 전라도 271 mg/kg 순서로 조사되었다. 지체구조에 의한 농도분포는 경기육괴가 396 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 퇴적분지/화산대인 울릉도가 349 mg/kg, 옥천습곡대 291 mg/kg, 영남육괴 281 mg/kg, 경상분지 259 mg/kg 순서로 높았다. 모암의 성인에 의한 농도분포는 변성암이 362 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 퇴적암 354 mg/kg, 화성암 328 mg/kg 순서로 조사되었다. 지질시대에 의한 농도분포는 고생대가 394 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 트라이아스기 391 mg/kg, 선캠브리아시대 368 mg/kg, 쥐라기 359 mg/kg, 시대미상 324 mg/kg, 제4기 314 mg/kg, 백악기 304 mg/kg순서로 높았다. 암종에 따른 불소 농도분포는 섬록암이 515 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 편마암류 377 mg/kg, 편암류 344 mg/kg, 천매암 306 mg/kg, 화강암류 305 mg/kg, 석영반암 298 mg/kg 순서로 조사되었다. 본 연구결과를 종합해보면 경기도 지역의 지각을 이루는 경기육괴 내 선캠브리아시대 변성암인 편마암류와 편암류가 높은 농도의 불소를 함유하고 있음을 알 수 있다.

주요어 불소, 골재, 산림골재, 농도분포, 토양오염우려기준

Article

Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 233-241

Published online April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Study on Geological Distribution of Fluorine in Forest Aggregate within Korea

Yeong-Il Jeong1, Kun-Ki Kim2, Soon-Oh Kim3, Sang-Woo Lee4, Jin-Young Lee5,*

1Geochang Granite Research Center, Geochang 50103, Korea
2Stone Industry Division, Korea Forestry Promotion Institute, Daejeon 35209, Korea
3Department of Geology and Research Institute of Natural Science(RINS), Gyeongsang National University(GNU), Jinju 52828, Korea
4HS Environmental Technology Research Center, Hosung Inc., Jinju 52818, Korea
5Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to:*jylee@kigam.re.kr

Received: March 1, 2024; Revised: March 27, 2024; Accepted: April 3, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the geological distribution characteristics of fluorine in rocks, which can be a major resource of forest aggregates in Korea. Samples of forest aggregates were collected from 224 sites in 22 cities and counties for this study. The national background concentration was 344 mg/kg, which was significantly lower than the average fluorine concentration of crustal, which was 625 mg/kg, and slightly higher than the average fluorine concentration of world soil, which was 321 mg/kg. In terms of region and tectonic structure, fluorine concentrations were investigated to be highest in Gyeonggi-do(394 mg/kg) and Gyeonggi massif(396 mg/kg), respectively. The concentration distribution by the origin of the parent rock was in the order of metamorphic rock(362 mg/kg) > sedimentary rock(354 mg/kg) > igneous rock(328 mg/kg), and the concentration distribution by geologic ages was the highest in the Paleozoic at 394 mg/kg. The concentration distribution by rock types was in the order of diorite(515 mg/kg) > gneisses(377 mg/kg) > schists(344 mg/kg) > phyllite(306 mg/kg) > granites(305 mg/kg) > quartz porphyry(298 mg/kg). Consequently, it is speculated that gneisses and schists, Precambrian metamorphic rocks in the Gyeonggi massif that forms the crust of Gyeonggi-do, contain high fluorine concentrations.

Keywords fluorine, aggregate, forest aggregate, concentration distribution, Soil Contamination Warning Standard

산림골재 내 불소의 지질학적 분포 연구

정영일1 · 김건기2 · 김순오3 · 이상우4 · 이진영5,*

1(재)거창화강석연구센터
2한국임업진흥원 석재산업실
3경상국립대학교 자연과학대학 지질과학과 및 기초과학연구소
4(주)호성 HS환경기술연구소
5한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

Received: March 1, 2024; Revised: March 27, 2024; Accepted: April 3, 2024

요 약

본 연구는 우리나라 산림골재 주요 공급원이 될 수 있는 암석 내 불소의 지질학적 분포 특성을 조사하기 위해 22개 시군의 224개 지점에서 산림골재(암석) 시료를 채취하여 불소 농도를 조사하였다. 전국 불소 배경농도는 344 mg/kg으로 암석의 지각 평균 불소 농도인 625 mg/kg 보다 현저히 낮으며, 세계 토양 평균 불소 농도인 321 mg/kg 보다는 다소 높았다. 권역별 농도분포는 경기도 394 mg/kg, 강원도 336 mg/kg, 충청도 318 mg/kg, 경상도 289 mg/kg, 전라도 271 mg/kg 순서로 조사되었다. 지체구조에 의한 농도분포는 경기육괴가 396 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 퇴적분지/화산대인 울릉도가 349 mg/kg, 옥천습곡대 291 mg/kg, 영남육괴 281 mg/kg, 경상분지 259 mg/kg 순서로 높았다. 모암의 성인에 의한 농도분포는 변성암이 362 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 퇴적암 354 mg/kg, 화성암 328 mg/kg 순서로 조사되었다. 지질시대에 의한 농도분포는 고생대가 394 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 트라이아스기 391 mg/kg, 선캠브리아시대 368 mg/kg, 쥐라기 359 mg/kg, 시대미상 324 mg/kg, 제4기 314 mg/kg, 백악기 304 mg/kg순서로 높았다. 암종에 따른 불소 농도분포는 섬록암이 515 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 편마암류 377 mg/kg, 편암류 344 mg/kg, 천매암 306 mg/kg, 화강암류 305 mg/kg, 석영반암 298 mg/kg 순서로 조사되었다. 본 연구결과를 종합해보면 경기도 지역의 지각을 이루는 경기육괴 내 선캠브리아시대 변성암인 편마암류와 편암류가 높은 농도의 불소를 함유하고 있음을 알 수 있다.

주요어 불소, 골재, 산림골재, 농도분포, 토양오염우려기준

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by region.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by tectonic structure.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by parent rock.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by origin of igneous rock.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by SiO2 content.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by geologic ages.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Distribution of fluorine concentration in aggregate by rock types.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 233-241https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.233

    Table 1 . Survey areas and sample numbers.

    Survey AreasSample numbersSum
    GangwonSokcho713
    Yanggu6
    Gyeonggi/IncheonGapyeong11103
    Goyang2
    Gwangju7
    Dongducheon8
    Ansan3
    Yangpyeong9
    Yeoncheon14
    Icheon4
    Pocheon33
    Incheon Eurwang2
    Gangwha9
    Ongjin1
    ChungcheongGoesan1647
    Geumsan14
    Chungju17
    JeollaGangjin1727
    Muju5
    Goheung5
    GyeongsangUlleung1634
    Hapcheon18
    Total224

    Table 2 . Fluorine levels in continental crust and soils of the world(Lim et al., 2018).

    Continental crustSoil
    Con. (mg/kg)CriterionSourceCon. (mg/kg)CriterionSource
    500Upper crustShaw et al.(1967, 1976)321World-soil averageKabata-Pendias(2010)
    561Upper crustGao et al.(1998)453ChinaWang and Wei(1995)
    611Upper crustWedepohl(1995)166-288SwitzerlandPolomski et al.(1982)
    577Upper crustRudnick and Gao(2003)113-475U.KFuge and Andrews(1998)
    625Crustal averageHedrick(1995)300-430U.SNational Research Council(2006)

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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