Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 205-217

Published online April 30, 2024

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Physical Properties of Volcanic Rocks in Jeju-Ulleung Area as Aggregates

Byoung-Woon You, Chul-Seoung Baek*, Kye-Young Joo

Aggregate Resource Research Lab, Korea Aggregates Research Institute, Seoul 05621, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to : *baekcs@ark.re.kr

Received: February 25, 2024; Revised: March 25, 2024; Accepted: March 25, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study evaluated the physical characteristics and quality of volcanic rocks distributed in the Jeju Island-Ulleung Island area as aggregate resources. The main rocks in the Jeju Island area include conglomerate, volcanic rock, and volcanic rock. Conglomerate is composed of yellow-red or gray heterogeneous sedimentary rock, conglomerate, and encapsulated conglomerate in a state between lavas. Volcanic rocks are classified according to their chemical composition into basalt, trachybasalt, basaltic trachytic andesite, trachytic andesite, and trachyte. By stratigraphy, from bottom to top, Seogwipo Formation, trachyte andesite, trachybasalt (Ⅰ), basalt (Ⅰ), trachybasalt (Ⅱ), basalt (Ⅱ), trachybasalt (Ⅲ, Ⅳ), trachyte, trachybasalt (Ⅴ, Ⅵ), basalt (Ⅲ), and trachybasalt (Ⅶ, Ⅷ). The bedrock of the Ulleung Island is composed of basalt, trachyte, trachytic basalt, and trachytic andesite, and some phonolite and tuffaceous clastic volcanic sedimentary rock. Aggregate quality evaluation factors of these rocks included soundness, resistance to abrasion, absorption rate, absolute dry density and alkali aggregate reactivity. Most volcanic rock quality results in the study area were found to satisfy aggregate quality standards, and differences in physical properties and quality were observed depending on the area. Resistance to abrasion and absolute dry density have similar distribution ranges, but Ulleung Island showed better soundness and Jeju Island showed better absorption rate. Overall, Jeju Island showed better quality as aggregate. In addition, the alkaline aggregate reactivity test results showed that harmless aggregates existed in both area, but Ulleungdo volcanic rock was found to be more advantageous than Jeju Island volcanic rock. Aggregate quality testing is typically performed simply for each gravel, but even similar rocks can vary depending on their geological origin and mineral composition. Therefore, when evaluating and analyzing aggregate resources, it will be possible to use them more efficiently if the petrological-mineralological research is performed together.

Keywords aggregate, volcanitc rock, physical properties, aggregate quality, alkali aggregate reaction

제주도 및 울릉도에서 산출되는 화산암의 골재로서의 물성 특징

유병운 · 백철승* · 주계영

한국골재산업연구원 골재자원연구실

요 약

본 연구는 제주도-울릉도 일대에 분포하는 화산암을 대상으로 골재자원으로서의 물성 특징과 골재자원으로서의 골재품질을 평가하였다. 제주도 지역의 주요 구성 암석은 역암, 화산암 및 화산쇄설암 등이다. 역암은 용암 사이에 협재된 상태로 황적색 또는 회색의 이질퇴적암, 역암, 함각력역암으로 구성되어 있다. 화산암류는 화학성분에 따라 현무암, 조면현무암, 현무암질조면안산암, 조면안산암 및 조면암류로 분류된다. 층서별로 하부에서 상부 순서대로 서귀포층, 조면안산암, 조면현무암(Ⅰ), 현무암(Ⅰ), 조면현무암(Ⅱ), 현무암(Ⅱ), 조면현무암(Ⅲ, Ⅳ), 조면암, 조면현무암(Ⅴ, Ⅵ), 현무암(Ⅲ) 및 조면현무암(Ⅶ, Ⅷ)으로 구분된다. 울릉도 지역의 기반암은 현무암, 조면암, 조면암질 현무암 및 조면암질 안산암으로 구성되어 있으며, 일부 포놀라이트와 응회암질 쇄설성 화산퇴적암으로 구성되어 있다. 기반암들의 골재품질 평가요소로 안정성, 마모율, 흡수율, 절대건조밀도 및 알칼리 골재 반응도 등이 고려되었다. 연구지역의 화산암류의 골재품질 평가 결과 대부분 골재 품질기준을 만족하는 것으로 나타났으며, 지역별로 물성 특징 및 품질이 다르게 나타났다. 마모율과 절대건조밀도는 유사한 분포 범위를 갖고 있으나, 안정성은 울릉도가, 흡수율은 제주도가 좋은 결과를 보였다. 전체적으로 제주도가 골재로서 더 좋은 품질을 나타내었다. 또한, 알칼리 골재 반응성 시험 결과 전반적으로 두 지역 모두 무해한 골재로 나타났으나, 제주도보다 울릉도 화산암류가 더 양호한 것으로 분석되었다. 골재품질시험은 암석 자갈을 대상으로 개략적으로 수행되지만 유사한 암석이라도 생성환경 및 광물조성에 따라 달라질 수 있다. 따라서 골재자원의 품질을 평가, 분석할 때 광물-암석학적 연구를 병행한다면 더욱 효율적으로 활용이 가능할 것이다.

주요어 골재, 화산암, 물성특징, 골재품질, 알칼리 골재 반응

Article

Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 205-217

Published online April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Physical Properties of Volcanic Rocks in Jeju-Ulleung Area as Aggregates

Byoung-Woon You, Chul-Seoung Baek*, Kye-Young Joo

Aggregate Resource Research Lab, Korea Aggregates Research Institute, Seoul 05621, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:*baekcs@ark.re.kr

Received: February 25, 2024; Revised: March 25, 2024; Accepted: March 25, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study evaluated the physical characteristics and quality of volcanic rocks distributed in the Jeju Island-Ulleung Island area as aggregate resources. The main rocks in the Jeju Island area include conglomerate, volcanic rock, and volcanic rock. Conglomerate is composed of yellow-red or gray heterogeneous sedimentary rock, conglomerate, and encapsulated conglomerate in a state between lavas. Volcanic rocks are classified according to their chemical composition into basalt, trachybasalt, basaltic trachytic andesite, trachytic andesite, and trachyte. By stratigraphy, from bottom to top, Seogwipo Formation, trachyte andesite, trachybasalt (Ⅰ), basalt (Ⅰ), trachybasalt (Ⅱ), basalt (Ⅱ), trachybasalt (Ⅲ, Ⅳ), trachyte, trachybasalt (Ⅴ, Ⅵ), basalt (Ⅲ), and trachybasalt (Ⅶ, Ⅷ). The bedrock of the Ulleung Island is composed of basalt, trachyte, trachytic basalt, and trachytic andesite, and some phonolite and tuffaceous clastic volcanic sedimentary rock. Aggregate quality evaluation factors of these rocks included soundness, resistance to abrasion, absorption rate, absolute dry density and alkali aggregate reactivity. Most volcanic rock quality results in the study area were found to satisfy aggregate quality standards, and differences in physical properties and quality were observed depending on the area. Resistance to abrasion and absolute dry density have similar distribution ranges, but Ulleung Island showed better soundness and Jeju Island showed better absorption rate. Overall, Jeju Island showed better quality as aggregate. In addition, the alkaline aggregate reactivity test results showed that harmless aggregates existed in both area, but Ulleungdo volcanic rock was found to be more advantageous than Jeju Island volcanic rock. Aggregate quality testing is typically performed simply for each gravel, but even similar rocks can vary depending on their geological origin and mineral composition. Therefore, when evaluating and analyzing aggregate resources, it will be possible to use them more efficiently if the petrological-mineralological research is performed together.

Keywords aggregate, volcanitc rock, physical properties, aggregate quality, alkali aggregate reaction

제주도 및 울릉도에서 산출되는 화산암의 골재로서의 물성 특징

유병운 · 백철승* · 주계영

한국골재산업연구원 골재자원연구실

Received: February 25, 2024; Revised: March 25, 2024; Accepted: March 25, 2024

요 약

본 연구는 제주도-울릉도 일대에 분포하는 화산암을 대상으로 골재자원으로서의 물성 특징과 골재자원으로서의 골재품질을 평가하였다. 제주도 지역의 주요 구성 암석은 역암, 화산암 및 화산쇄설암 등이다. 역암은 용암 사이에 협재된 상태로 황적색 또는 회색의 이질퇴적암, 역암, 함각력역암으로 구성되어 있다. 화산암류는 화학성분에 따라 현무암, 조면현무암, 현무암질조면안산암, 조면안산암 및 조면암류로 분류된다. 층서별로 하부에서 상부 순서대로 서귀포층, 조면안산암, 조면현무암(Ⅰ), 현무암(Ⅰ), 조면현무암(Ⅱ), 현무암(Ⅱ), 조면현무암(Ⅲ, Ⅳ), 조면암, 조면현무암(Ⅴ, Ⅵ), 현무암(Ⅲ) 및 조면현무암(Ⅶ, Ⅷ)으로 구분된다. 울릉도 지역의 기반암은 현무암, 조면암, 조면암질 현무암 및 조면암질 안산암으로 구성되어 있으며, 일부 포놀라이트와 응회암질 쇄설성 화산퇴적암으로 구성되어 있다. 기반암들의 골재품질 평가요소로 안정성, 마모율, 흡수율, 절대건조밀도 및 알칼리 골재 반응도 등이 고려되었다. 연구지역의 화산암류의 골재품질 평가 결과 대부분 골재 품질기준을 만족하는 것으로 나타났으며, 지역별로 물성 특징 및 품질이 다르게 나타났다. 마모율과 절대건조밀도는 유사한 분포 범위를 갖고 있으나, 안정성은 울릉도가, 흡수율은 제주도가 좋은 결과를 보였다. 전체적으로 제주도가 골재로서 더 좋은 품질을 나타내었다. 또한, 알칼리 골재 반응성 시험 결과 전반적으로 두 지역 모두 무해한 골재로 나타났으나, 제주도보다 울릉도 화산암류가 더 양호한 것으로 분석되었다. 골재품질시험은 암석 자갈을 대상으로 개략적으로 수행되지만 유사한 암석이라도 생성환경 및 광물조성에 따라 달라질 수 있다. 따라서 골재자원의 품질을 평가, 분석할 때 광물-암석학적 연구를 병행한다면 더욱 효율적으로 활용이 가능할 것이다.

주요어 골재, 화산암, 물성특징, 골재품질, 알칼리 골재 반응

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Geological map of Jeju-do area(Modified from Park et al., 1998).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 205-217https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Geological map of Ulleung-do area(Modified from Hwang et al., 2012).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 205-217https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Photographs of Jeju-do volcanic rocks thin section(Left:Crossed nicol, Right:Opened nicol). Abbreviations: Andes=Andesite, Ol=Olivine, Mt=Magnetite.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 205-217https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Photographs of Ulleung-do volcanic rocks thin section(Left:Crossed nicol, Right:Opened nicol). Abbreviations: Andes=Andesine, Sa=Sanidine, Ol=Olivine, Px=Pyroxene.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 205-217https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Box and Whisker plot diagram of aggregate physical properties of Jeju-Ulleung volcanic rocks.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 205-217https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Alkali aggregate reactivity standard diagram for identify of Jeju and Ulleung volcanic rocks.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 205-217https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.205

    Table 1 . Mineral contents of Jeju-do Volcanic rocks analyzed from XRD(X-Ray Diffraction).

    SampleAndesineAugiteSanidineForsteriteMagnetiteIlmeniteTotal
    JJ-0153.518.612.17.85.92.1100.0
    JJ-0259.114.511.88.75.50.4100.0
    JJ-0352.821.79.88.26.50.999.9
    JJ-0461.310.816.13.17.41.3100.0
    JJ-0552.620.49.48.37.22.099.9
    JJ-0657.413.418.05.84.60.8100.0
    JJ-0743.320.317.010.96.91.6100.0
    JJ-0856.715.015.96.44.81.3100.1
    JJ-0958.99.418.65.35.72.2100.1
    JJ-1051.721.38.411.96.70.1100.1
    JJ-1153.419.113.38.24.02.0100.0
    JJ-1253.914.814.67.57.61.6100.0
    JJ-1353.112.516.210.27.30.7100.0

    Table 2 . Mineral contents of Ulleung-do Volcanic rocks analyzed from XRD(X-Ray Diffraction).

    SampleSanidineAndesineMagnetiteAnalcimeNephelineBiotiteAugiteHorn blendeIlmeniteChloriteGobbin siteApatiteMusco viteTotal
    UL-0160.237.32.4trtr99.9
    UL-0258.126.12.49.72.90.8100.0
    UL-0351.528.73.85.810.2100.0
    UL-0455.838.31.64.3100.0
    UL-0558.832.31.47.5100.0
    UL-0786.73.17.13.2100.1
    UL-0853.144.42.5100.0
    UL-0966.025.62.26.2100.0
    UL-1058.437.02.62.0100.0
    UL-1171.420.51.46.50.2100.0
    UL-1247.931.91.918.3100.0
    UL-1357.840.41.8100.0
    UL-1460.834.23.12.0100.1
    UL-1597.61.90.5100.0
    UL-1650.09.213.918.63.15.199.9
    UL-1758.37.113.110.21.410100.1

    Table 3 . Evaluation of Jeju and Ulleung Area Volcanic rocks on the parameters of Aggregate quality assessment.

    Jeju-doUlleung-do
    SampleSoundnessResistance of abrasionAbsorptionAbsolute dry densitySampleSoundnessResistance of abrasionAbsorptionAbsolute dry density
    JJ-012.0022.701.072.67UL-010.6021.801.442.52
    JJ-021.8018.900.862.76UL-020.4026.502.602.35
    JJ-037.4033.201.782.47UL-031.1028.404.332.31
    JJ-041.9025.701.302.71UL-040.4017.801.022.54
    JJ-05-16.7031.502.632.42UL-050.3019.201.302.51
    JJ-05-22.1020.700.942.79UL-071.9024.903.652.33
    JJ-061.7016.100.822.82UL-080.4020.401.372.51
    JJ-072.0019.400.872.83UL-090.8037.202.922.40
    JJ-082.1021.501.292.70UL-100.7025.701.682.48
    JJ-092.5023.401.172.71UL-110.5024.802.082.44
    JJ-102.4026.601.102.66UL-120.5018.301.562.46
    JJ-111.8017.300.552.81UL-130.7026.102.412.44
    JJ-12-12.9022.200.822.83UL-141.1026.204.982.25
    JJ-12-28.4042.203.852.22UL-150.6024.903.812.21
    JJ-137.1036.502.222.39UL-161.2026.703.502.48
    JJ-143.7024.801.042.74UL-171.6016.404.162.37
    JJ-151.7018.400.662.84
    JJ-162.2014.200.692.84
    Avg.3.3624.181.312.68Avg.0.8024.082.682.41
    Max.8.4042.203.852.84Max.1.9037.204.982.54
    Min.1.7014.200.552.22Min.0.3016.401.022.21

    Table 4 . Alkali aggregates reactivity result of Jeju and Ulleung area.

    Jeju-doUlleung-do
    SampleDissolved SiO2 (mmol/L)(Sc)Reduction in Alkalinity (mmol/L)(Rc)Rate of change in LengthSampleDissolved SiO2 (mmol/L)(Sc)Reduction in Alkalinity (mmol/L)(Rc)Rate of change in Length
    JJ-0159.70121.210.49UL-019.4073.090.13
    JJ-0248.0097.970.49UL-0213.10287.630.05
    JJ-0346.9098.670.47UL-0322.60258.990.09
    JJ-04181.10207.320.87UL-0474.0085.240.87
    JJ-05199.40204.600.97UL-0578.9089.510.88
    JJ-0681.10144.030.56UL-0781.10426.070.19
    JJ-0787.40128.930.68UL-0850.30103.210.49
    JJ-0826.3028.580.92UL-0989.1096.990.92
    JJ-09176.60195.030.91UL-1036.30103.490.35
    JJ-1050.3091.560.55UL-1118.0096.820.19
    JJ-11118.90153.250.78UL-1257.70171.080.34
    JJ-12101.40188.120.54UL-1389.10113.960.78
    JJ-1374.60144.220.52UL-1456.30284.280.2
    UL-1558.90141.520.42
    UL-1619.10240.050.08
    UL-1761.10328.470.19
    Avg.96.28138.730.67Avg.50.94181.280.39
    Max.199.40207.320.97Max.89.10426.070.92
    Min.26.3028.580.47Min.9.4073.090.05

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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