Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 143-159

Published online April 30, 2024

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Distribution, Preservation Characteristics of Land and River Natural Aggregates in Nonsan City, Korea

Hyun Ho Yoon, Sei Sun Hong*, Min Han, Jin-Young Lee

Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to : *hss@kigam.re.kr

Received: February 29, 2024; Revised: April 3, 2024; Accepted: April 5, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Natural aggregate is an essential resource for human activities, closely related to construction. The aggregate demand has been increasing annually, and due to the nature of the resource, it is difficult to procure from distant locations. This study identifies the distribution and characteristics of aggregate-bearing areas as part of a municipal-level aggregate resource survey conducted in Nonsan City, Korea, in 2023. Nonsan City is located approximately 35 km straight distance from the Geum River estuary and lies at the passageway of the main stream of the Geum River. The topography of Nonsan City features eastern mountainous areas and western plains, creating an east-high-west-low geomorphic setting, with 33 streams distributed across the city, including tributaries of the Geum River like Nonsan Stream, Noseong Stream, and Ganggyeong Stream. All streams originate from the highlands in the north and east, converge with Nonsan Stream, and then join the west bank of the main stream of the Geum River at the western boundary of Nonsan City. Drilling core results show shallow depths in the highlands to the north and east, deepening towards the west, reaching a maximum depth of 25 m near the main stream of the Geum River. The total reserve of land aggregates is calculated to be 246,789,000 m3, with a developable amount of 172,750,000 m3. The total reserve of river aggregates is 5,236,000 m3, with a developable amount of 3,765,000 m3. The distribution of aggregates varies according to the geomorphic, geologic, and development pattern of the river system. Reserves are scarce in mountainous areas but are abundant in regions with rivers and wide alluvial plains, although reserves appear at depths greater than 4m. The distribution of aggregate resources in Nonsan City is influenced by stream activities and sea level changes, with the tidal range of the Yellow Sea acting as an unfavorable condition for the preservation of aggregate resources.

Keywords Nonsan City, natural aggregate, preservation characteristics, Nonsan Stream, tidal flat

논산시 하천 및 육상 골재 자원의 부존 현황과 특성

윤현호 · 홍세선* · 한민 · 이진영

한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

요 약

천연골재(Natural aggregate)는 인간활동에 필수적인 자원으로 건축활동과 밀접하게 관련되어 있다. 최근 골재의 수요는 매년 증가하는 추세이며 자원의 특성상 원거리에서 조달하기가 어렵다. 이 연구는 시군단위 골재자원조사의 일환으로 2023년 충청남도 논산시를 대상으로 수행된 조사결과를 바탕으로 골재부존지역의 분포와 특성을 파악하였다. 논산시는 금강 하구로부터 직선거리로 약 35km 떨어져있으며 금강 본류가 지나는 길목에 위치한다. 논산시의 지형은 동부의 산악지대와 서부의 평야지대를 형성하는 동고서저형의 지형적 특색을 지니며 금강의 지류인 논산천, 노성천, 강경천 등을 포함하여 33개의 국가 및 지방하천이 분포한다. 모든 하천들은 고지대인 북쪽과 동쪽에서 발원하여 논산천과 합류한 뒤 논산시의 서쪽 경계에서 금강 본류의 좌안으로 합류한다. 시추 결과는 고지대인 북쪽과 동쪽에서 얕은 심도를 보이며 서쪽으로 갈수록 깊은 심도를 보여 금강 본류 인근에서 최대깊이인 25m를 보인다. 계산된 육상골재의 총 부존량은 246,789,000㎥이며, 개발 가능량은 172,750,000㎥이다. 하천골재의 총 부존량은 5,236,000㎥ 이며, 개발가능량은 3,765,000㎥로 나타났다. 골재의 분포양상은 지형 및 지질, 수계의 발달 양상에 따라 다양하게 나타난다. 부존량은 산간지역에서 미비하며 하천과 넓은 충적평야가 발달하는 지역에서 많은 양의 골재자원이 분포하는 것으로 나타나지만 부존심도는 4m 이상의 깊이에서 나타난다. 논산시의 골재자원 분포는 하천작용과 해수면 변동의 영향으로 인한 것이며 서해안의 큰 조차는 골재자원의 부존에 불리한 조건으로 작용한 것으로 해석된다.

주요어 논산시, 천연골재, 부존 특성, 논산천, 조간대

Article

Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)”

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 143-159

Published online April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Distribution, Preservation Characteristics of Land and River Natural Aggregates in Nonsan City, Korea

Hyun Ho Yoon, Sei Sun Hong*, Min Han, Jin-Young Lee

Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to:*hss@kigam.re.kr

Received: February 29, 2024; Revised: April 3, 2024; Accepted: April 5, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Natural aggregate is an essential resource for human activities, closely related to construction. The aggregate demand has been increasing annually, and due to the nature of the resource, it is difficult to procure from distant locations. This study identifies the distribution and characteristics of aggregate-bearing areas as part of a municipal-level aggregate resource survey conducted in Nonsan City, Korea, in 2023. Nonsan City is located approximately 35 km straight distance from the Geum River estuary and lies at the passageway of the main stream of the Geum River. The topography of Nonsan City features eastern mountainous areas and western plains, creating an east-high-west-low geomorphic setting, with 33 streams distributed across the city, including tributaries of the Geum River like Nonsan Stream, Noseong Stream, and Ganggyeong Stream. All streams originate from the highlands in the north and east, converge with Nonsan Stream, and then join the west bank of the main stream of the Geum River at the western boundary of Nonsan City. Drilling core results show shallow depths in the highlands to the north and east, deepening towards the west, reaching a maximum depth of 25 m near the main stream of the Geum River. The total reserve of land aggregates is calculated to be 246,789,000 m3, with a developable amount of 172,750,000 m3. The total reserve of river aggregates is 5,236,000 m3, with a developable amount of 3,765,000 m3. The distribution of aggregates varies according to the geomorphic, geologic, and development pattern of the river system. Reserves are scarce in mountainous areas but are abundant in regions with rivers and wide alluvial plains, although reserves appear at depths greater than 4m. The distribution of aggregate resources in Nonsan City is influenced by stream activities and sea level changes, with the tidal range of the Yellow Sea acting as an unfavorable condition for the preservation of aggregate resources.

Keywords Nonsan City, natural aggregate, preservation characteristics, Nonsan Stream, tidal flat

논산시 하천 및 육상 골재 자원의 부존 현황과 특성

윤현호 · 홍세선* · 한민 · 이진영

한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

Received: February 29, 2024; Revised: April 3, 2024; Accepted: April 5, 2024

요 약

천연골재(Natural aggregate)는 인간활동에 필수적인 자원으로 건축활동과 밀접하게 관련되어 있다. 최근 골재의 수요는 매년 증가하는 추세이며 자원의 특성상 원거리에서 조달하기가 어렵다. 이 연구는 시군단위 골재자원조사의 일환으로 2023년 충청남도 논산시를 대상으로 수행된 조사결과를 바탕으로 골재부존지역의 분포와 특성을 파악하였다. 논산시는 금강 하구로부터 직선거리로 약 35km 떨어져있으며 금강 본류가 지나는 길목에 위치한다. 논산시의 지형은 동부의 산악지대와 서부의 평야지대를 형성하는 동고서저형의 지형적 특색을 지니며 금강의 지류인 논산천, 노성천, 강경천 등을 포함하여 33개의 국가 및 지방하천이 분포한다. 모든 하천들은 고지대인 북쪽과 동쪽에서 발원하여 논산천과 합류한 뒤 논산시의 서쪽 경계에서 금강 본류의 좌안으로 합류한다. 시추 결과는 고지대인 북쪽과 동쪽에서 얕은 심도를 보이며 서쪽으로 갈수록 깊은 심도를 보여 금강 본류 인근에서 최대깊이인 25m를 보인다. 계산된 육상골재의 총 부존량은 246,789,000㎥이며, 개발 가능량은 172,750,000㎥이다. 하천골재의 총 부존량은 5,236,000㎥ 이며, 개발가능량은 3,765,000㎥로 나타났다. 골재의 분포양상은 지형 및 지질, 수계의 발달 양상에 따라 다양하게 나타난다. 부존량은 산간지역에서 미비하며 하천과 넓은 충적평야가 발달하는 지역에서 많은 양의 골재자원이 분포하는 것으로 나타나지만 부존심도는 4m 이상의 깊이에서 나타난다. 논산시의 골재자원 분포는 하천작용과 해수면 변동의 영향으로 인한 것이며 서해안의 큰 조차는 골재자원의 부존에 불리한 조건으로 작용한 것으로 해석된다.

주요어 논산시, 천연골재, 부존 특성, 논산천, 조간대

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Satellite image spanning from the Geum river estuary to the Nonsan City.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.(a) Location map of the drilling sites and the survay area, (b) geological map in Nonsan City.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Conceptual depositional model for point bar in a meandering stream channel (modified from Allen, 1970).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Core images and stratigraphic section of the representative core 23NSR01 in the downstream part of Nonsan stream.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Core images and stratigraphic section of the representative core 23NSL19 in the upstream part of Nonsan stream.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.The location of core around Nonsan stream, stratigraphic sections, and the aggregate-bearing sections within each cores.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.The location of core around Noseong stream, stratigraphic sections, and the aggregate-bearing sections within each cores.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.The location of core around Ganggyeong stream, stratigraphic sections, and the aggregate-bearing sections within each cores.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Conceptual models of channel types related to the dominant type of bedload in the stream and the relative stability of channel banks (Orton and Readings, 1993).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Evolution model of an incised valley and its subsequent filling in tide-domiated environments (modified from Shanley and McCabe, 1993).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 143-159https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.2.143

    Table 1 . General information about major streams in Nonsan City.

    NameTotal stream length (km)Total waterways length (km)Watershed area (km2)Watershed mean width (A/L2)km Shape Coefficient (A/L2)Average Gradient (%)Average Altitude (EL.m)
    Nonsan Stream21.555.0665.012.10.2222.6119.2
    Ganggyeong Stream6.521.6125.15.80.2711.852.9
    Noseong Stream4.927.3193.87.10.2619.698.0

    Table 2 . Characteristics of riverbeds in the major streams of Nonsan City. For location in the study site, see Figures 6, 7, 8 (MOLIT, 2016).

    NameMeasurement sectionRiverbed slopeChannel width (m)Stream width (m)Mean grain size (mm)Specific gravity (Gs)
    Nonsan StreamNS01NS021/261433.7~480.0100.2~157.80.022.62
    NS02NS031/2013270.2~433.788~157.80.01~0.022.62~2.63
    NS03NS041/5116271.7~34943~171.50.0~7.32.63~2.65
    NS04NS051/1118210.7~34937.3~171.57.32.65
    NS05NS061/820210.7~32125.7~231.90.84~7.462.63~2.65
    NS06NS071/5384.1~451.840~1180.842.63
    NS07NS081/627
    Ganggyeong StreamGG01GG021/1738139.9~218.549.5~104.60.012.63~2.64
    GG02GG031/8283107.6~214.633.8~104.60.012.64
    Noseong StreamNO01NO021/132171.8~224.226.2~1350.3~3.292.62~2.67

    Table 3 . Drilling data and aggregate reserve part in Nonsan City.

    NameNorthingEastingElevation (m)Depth (m)Aggregate part (m)Remark
    23NSL0136°08'45.21"127°01'35.92"5.0397~9
    23NSL0236°10'01.60"127°03'4.20"5.38186.5~8, 12~17
    23NSL0336°11'07.28"127°02'03.12"4.41217~8.5
    23NSL0436°12'53.82"127°01'51.64"5.75916.2~19.9
    23NSL0536°07'44.64"127°03'44.60"6.151510~13
    23NSL0636°07'07.84"127°06'42.96"19.4783.7~6.5
    23NSL0736°09'14.24"127°06'43.45"8.4396.5~8.5
    23NSL0836°13'37.51"127°04'45.25"6.39118~11
    23NSL0936°08'28.60"127°09'14.89"32.0351.5~3.8
    23NSL1036°12'06.78"127°06'08.15"7.4396~8
    23NSL1136°13'10.23"127°06'43.23"7.4273~5.5Land aggregate
    23NSL1236°10'48.51"127°07'50.98"13.2882~6.6
    23NSL1336°15'23.25"127°04'48.37"9.5174~6
    23NSL1436°17'48.33"127°05'01.96"22.606-
    23NSL1536°17'51.41"127°09'00.12"18.5363~4.4
    23NSL1636°13'45.36"127°09'45.78"14.7975~5.8
    23NSL1736°15'43.01"127°08'16.35"12.8985~7
    23NSL1836°10'22.94"127°12'11.73"33.3874~5
    23NSL1936°08'02.47"127°14'37.29"51.8071~5
    23NSL2036°12'28.82"127°16'14.87"112.1691.5~6.5
    23NSR0136°09'57.51"127°00'33.14"4.022514.7~23
    23NSR0236°09'12.46"127°01'49.85"4.3110-
    23NSR0336°12'14.76"127°04'26.75"4.42133~4.7River aggregate
    23NSR0436°13'58.91"127°07'49.75"9.36106.2~7.8
    23NSR0536°11'40.53"127°07'36.75"7.4640~4

    Table 4 . Estimating results the land aggregate reserves in Nonsan City.

    RegionSurvey area (m2)Aggregate area* (m2)Reserves (m3)Available Area** (m2)Available Reserves (m3)
    SandGravelTotalSandGravelTotal
    Ganggyeon-eup1,317,0001,317,0002,080,00068,0002,148,000922,0001,456,00048,0001,504,000
    Yeonmu-eup11,558,00011,558,00015,273,000337,00015,610,0008,091,00010,691,000236,00010,927,000
    Seongdong-myeon11,268,00011,268,00044,647,0001,014,00045,661,0007,887,00031,253,000710,00031,963,000
    Gwangseok-myeon11,115,00011,115,00023,950,0001,087,00025,037,0007,780,00016,765,000761,00017,526,000
    Noseong-myeon5,274,0005,274,0002,680,00074,0002,754,0003,692,0001,876,00052,0001,928,000
    Sangwol-myeon8,882,0008,882,00012,899,000409,00013,308,0006,217,0009,029,000286,0009,315,000
    Bujeok-myeon10,274,00010,274,00028,184,0001,270,00029,454,0007,192,00019,729,000889,00020,618,000
    Yeonsan-myeon8,060,0008,060,0003,247,000185,0003,432,0005,642,0002,273,000129,0002,402,000
    Beolgok-myeon893,000893,0003,679,000145,0003,824,000625,0002,575,000102,0002,677,000
    Yangchon-myeon7,460,0007,460,00017,845,000439,00018,284,0005,222,00012,491,000307,00012,798,000
    Gayagok-myeon3,168,0003,168,0004,881,000167,0005,048,0002,217,0003,417,000117,0003,534,000
    Eunjin-myeon4,833,0004,833,00012,612,000615,00013,227,0003,383,0008,828,000430,0009,258,000
    Chaeun-myeon11,383,00011,383,00061,337,0002,484,00063,821,0007,968,00042,935,0001,739,00044,674,000
    Chwiam & Buchang-dong3,098,0003,098,0005,055,000126,0005,181,0002,168,0003,538,00088,0003,626,000
    Total98,583,00098,583,000238,369,0008,420,000246,789,00069,006,000166,856,0005,894,000172,750,000

    *The area where the aggregate-bearing section is confirmed by drilling..

    **70% of the Aggregate Area considering site condition for aggregate development..


    Table 5 . Estimating results the river aggregate reserves in Nonsan City.

    RegionSurvey area (m2)Aggregate area* (m2)Reserves (m3)Available Area** (m2)Available Reserves (m3)Reference coreRemark
    1190,000190,0001,384,000132,000969,00023NSR01Ganggyeong stream
    2790,000790,0001,161,000553,000813,00023NSR03Nonsan stream
    3599,000599,0001,357,000419,000949,00023NSR04Noseong stream
    4426,000426,0001,478,000297,0001,034,00023NSR05Nonsan stream
    Total2,005,0002,005,0005,236,0001,401,0003,765,000

    *The area where the aggregate-bearing section is confirmed by drilling..

    **70% of the Aggregate Area considering site condition for aggregate development..


    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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