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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(1): 83-91

Published online February 29, 2024

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Analysis of the Effects of Recycling and Reuse of Used Electric Vehicle Batteries in Korea

Yujeong Kim*

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

Correspondence to : *kyj@kigam.re.kr

Received: December 15, 2023; Revised: January 19, 2024; Accepted: January 20, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

According to the IEA (2022), global rechargeable battery demand is expected to reach 1.3 TWh in 2040. EV batteries will account for about 80% of this demand, and used EV batteries are expected to be discharged after 30 years. Used EV batteries can be recycled and reused to create new value. They can also resolve one of the most vulnerable parts of the battery supply chain: raw material insecurity. In this study, we analyzed the amount of used batteries generated by EV in Korea and their potential for reuse and recycling. As a result, it was estimated that the annual generation of used batteries for EV began to increase to more than 100,000 in '31 and expanded to 810,000 in '45. In addition, it was found that the market for recycling EV batteries in '45 could be expected to be equivalent to the production of 1 million batteries, and the market for reuse could be expected to be equivalent to the production of 36 Gwh of batteries. On the other hand, according to the plan standard disclosed by the recycling company, domestic used EV batteries can account for 11% of the domestic recycling processing capacity (pre-treatment) ('30). So it will be important to manage the import and export of used batteries in terms of securing raw materials.

Keywords used EV batteries, recycle, reuse, supply chain

한국의 전기차 사용 후 배터리 재활용 및 재사용 효과 분석 연구

김유정*

한국지질자원연구원

요 약

IEA(2022)는 세계 이차전지 배터리 수요는 2040년 1.3TWh로 그 중, 전기자동차 배터리는 약 80%를 차지하고, 사용후 배터리는 30년 이후 본격적으로 배출될 것으로 전망되고 있다. 전기차 사용후 배터리는 재사용 및 재활용을 통해 새로운 가치를 창출할 수 있으며, 배터리 공급망에서 가장 취약한 부분인 원료 확보 불안정성을 해소할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 국내 전기차 사용후 배터리 발생량과 이의 재사용 및 재활용 잠재성을 분석하였다. 그 결과, 전기차 사용후 배터리 연간 발생량은 ‘31년부터 10만개에서 ‘45년 81만개로 확대될 것으로 추정되었다. 또한 재활용으로 회수한 자원으로 ‘45년에는 100만대의 배터리 제조할 수 있으며, 재사용은 36Gwh급 배터리 생산에 맞먹는 시장을 기대할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 현재 재활용 업체가 공개한 계획기준에서, 국내 전기차 사용후 배터리는 국내 재활용 처리용량(전처리)의 11% 담당 가능(‘30년)할 것으로 원료확보의 차원에서 폐배터리 수출입 관리가 중요할 것이다.

주요어 사용후 배터리, 발생량, 재활용, 재사용, 공급망

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(1): 83-91

Published online February 29, 2024 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Analysis of the Effects of Recycling and Reuse of Used Electric Vehicle Batteries in Korea

Yujeong Kim*

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

Correspondence to:*kyj@kigam.re.kr

Received: December 15, 2023; Revised: January 19, 2024; Accepted: January 20, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

According to the IEA (2022), global rechargeable battery demand is expected to reach 1.3 TWh in 2040. EV batteries will account for about 80% of this demand, and used EV batteries are expected to be discharged after 30 years. Used EV batteries can be recycled and reused to create new value. They can also resolve one of the most vulnerable parts of the battery supply chain: raw material insecurity. In this study, we analyzed the amount of used batteries generated by EV in Korea and their potential for reuse and recycling. As a result, it was estimated that the annual generation of used batteries for EV began to increase to more than 100,000 in '31 and expanded to 810,000 in '45. In addition, it was found that the market for recycling EV batteries in '45 could be expected to be equivalent to the production of 1 million batteries, and the market for reuse could be expected to be equivalent to the production of 36 Gwh of batteries. On the other hand, according to the plan standard disclosed by the recycling company, domestic used EV batteries can account for 11% of the domestic recycling processing capacity (pre-treatment) ('30). So it will be important to manage the import and export of used batteries in terms of securing raw materials.

Keywords used EV batteries, recycle, reuse, supply chain

한국의 전기차 사용 후 배터리 재활용 및 재사용 효과 분석 연구

김유정*

한국지질자원연구원

Received: December 15, 2023; Revised: January 19, 2024; Accepted: January 20, 2024

요 약

IEA(2022)는 세계 이차전지 배터리 수요는 2040년 1.3TWh로 그 중, 전기자동차 배터리는 약 80%를 차지하고, 사용후 배터리는 30년 이후 본격적으로 배출될 것으로 전망되고 있다. 전기차 사용후 배터리는 재사용 및 재활용을 통해 새로운 가치를 창출할 수 있으며, 배터리 공급망에서 가장 취약한 부분인 원료 확보 불안정성을 해소할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 국내 전기차 사용후 배터리 발생량과 이의 재사용 및 재활용 잠재성을 분석하였다. 그 결과, 전기차 사용후 배터리 연간 발생량은 ‘31년부터 10만개에서 ‘45년 81만개로 확대될 것으로 추정되었다. 또한 재활용으로 회수한 자원으로 ‘45년에는 100만대의 배터리 제조할 수 있으며, 재사용은 36Gwh급 배터리 생산에 맞먹는 시장을 기대할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 현재 재활용 업체가 공개한 계획기준에서, 국내 전기차 사용후 배터리는 국내 재활용 처리용량(전처리)의 11% 담당 가능(‘30년)할 것으로 원료확보의 차원에서 폐배터리 수출입 관리가 중요할 것이다.

주요어 사용후 배터리, 발생량, 재활용, 재사용, 공급망

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Correlation between electric vehicle battery weight and capacity.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Different types of EV batteries' market share worldwide 2020-2050.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Forecast for EV supply and used EV batteries generation in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Number of Reused and recycled(1st) in used EV batteries by year in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Reuse capacity of waste battery and battery production effect in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Amount of metal recovered through used EV battery recycling in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Cumulative amount of metal recovered through used EV battery recycling in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Domestic supply of waste battery recycling materials for electric vehicles.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2024; 57: 83-91https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2024.57.1.83

    Table 1 . Number of new cars & new electric vehicles registration per year in Korea.

    201520182019202020212022
    Number of new EV registrationsCumulative5,71255,75689,928134,962231,443389,855
    Annual (A)2,93730,64834,17245,03496,481158,412
    Number of new car registrations (B)183329318130511786326190597217345811,697,135
    (A)/(B)*1000%2%2%2%6%9%

    * data source: https://stat.molit.go.kr/portal/main/portalMain.do(2023.03.12.).


    Table 2 . Capacity and weight of EV battery by period.

    ~20202021~20302031 ~ 2040
    Capacity of EV battery25kwh/piece70kwh/piece100kwh/piece
    Weight of EV battery250kg/piece500kg/piece700kg/piece

    Table 3 . Recycling and reuse percentage of used EV batteries.

    ~20252026 ~
    Recycling VS Reuse60% : 40%45% : 55%

    Table 4 . Recycling recovery rate of used EV batteries.

    20252026 ~비고
    Li, Mn, Co, NiPre-processing recovery rate90%95%*National R&D project objectives of secondary battery collection and dismantling technology are reflected8)
    Post-processing recovery rate95%98%* China's Policy Technology Goals9): Li: 85%, Co, Mn, Ni: 98%
    Al, Cu90%90%* Applying the recycling rate of small waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Table 5 . Amount of metal content by EV battery cathode(ton/GWh).

    AlCoCuCLiMnNi
    LiNMC 6229872141200966126200641
    LiNMC 81185494120098411188750

    * Source: CSIRO(2021), Critical Energy Minerals Roadmap.


    Table 6 . Price of used EV battery in Korea market.

    ~20302031 ~
    Used EV battery price15$/kwh27$/kwh

    Table 7 . Reuse effect of after used EV battery in Korea.

    2030203520402045
    Reusable battery capacity (GWh)2.31020.535.9
    Battery production effect (hundred million won)2,97812,94026,67746,659
    Sales of Reusing (hundred million won)9553,5586,1038,991

    Table 8 . Recycling throughput of used EV batteries in Korea.

    2030203520402045
    1st2ndSum1st2ndSum1st2ndSum1st2ndSum
    Number (thousand)3734013846184237169406349290639
    Weight (1,000 tons)170.71869219014184225244172416
    Capacity (GWh)20210313201232352459

    Table 9 . Current status and plan of domestic used EV batteries recycling processing and facility capacity.

    20262027202820292030
    Domestic facility capacity for pre-treatment of waste batteries (a)ton/year88,000168,000168,000168,000168,000
    Electric vehicle waste battery recycling processing volume (b)ton1,7673,3256,27611,12318,185
    Facility capacity comparison processing rate (a)/(b)*100%2%2%4%7%11%

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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