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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 871-885

Published online December 29, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Aggregate of Korea in 2022

Sei Sun Hong, Jin Young Lee*

Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to : *jylee@kigam.re.kr

Received: October 16, 2023; Revised: November 23, 2023; Accepted: November 24, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In 2022, the total of 129 million m3 of aggregate was produced in Korea, a slightly decrease from the total production of 2021. Of these, about 44 million m3 of sand and about 84 million m3 of gravel were produced. About 41% of total quantity of aggregates were produced by permission and the rest were produced after declaration. It estimated that of the 129 million m3 of aggregates in Korea in 2022, about 54.9% was produced by screening crushed aggregate, by 32.8% by forest aggregate, 2.2% by land aggregate, 6.2% by marine aggregate and 3.1% by washing aggregate, and 0.3% by river aggregate. This indicates that screening crushed and forest aggregate are the main producers of domestic aggregate in 2022. Leading producing metropolitan governments were Gyeonggi-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, Incheon, Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, Gangwon-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do in order decreasing volume. In 2022, aggregates were produced in 147 local governments, and the 10 leading producing local governments were, in descending order of volume, Hwaseong, Pocheon, Paju, Ongjin, Youngin, Gwangju, west EEZ, Incheon Seo-gu, Namyangju, Asan. The combined production of the 10 leading local governments accounted for 31% of the national total. And 44 local governments have produced aggregates of more than 1 million m3 each other. In 148 local governments that produced aggregate, a total of 800 active operations produced aggregate with 350 operations by river, land and forest aggregate, 450 operations by selective crushed and washing aggregate.

Keywords aggregate, sand, gravel, aggregate source, permitted period

2022년 한국의 골재

홍세선 · 이진영*

한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

요 약

2022년에는 약 1억 2,874만 ㎥의 골재가 채취되었다. 이 중 모래는 약 4,427만 ㎥, 자갈은 약 8,447만 ㎥이다. 허가채취는 약 5,334만 ㎥, 신고채취는 약 7,540만 ㎥ 이다. 골재원별로는 선별파쇄에서 가장 많은 7,067만 ㎥가 채취되었으며, 그 다음으로 산림골재 4,214만 ㎥, 바다골재 797만 ㎥, 선별세척 403만 ㎥, 육상골재 286만 ㎥, 기타골재 70만 ㎥, 하천골재 37만 ㎥ 순으로 선별파쇄와 산림골재의 채취량이 전국 채취량의 약 87.6%에 달한다. 시도별로는 경기도가 가장 골재를 많이 채취하였으며, 그 다음으로 경상남도, 충청남도, 인천광역시, 전라남도의 순이다. 2022년에는 231개 시군구의 약 64%인 147개 시군구에서 골재를 채취하였다. 100만 ㎥ 이상의 골재를 채취한 시군구는 44개이며, 이들 시군구에서는 전국 채취량의 72%인 약 9,269만 ㎥를 채취하였다. 2022년도에는 약 960개소 정도의 채취장이 운영되었으나 실제 골재를 채취한 채취장은 약 800개소이다. 이중 허가채취장은 350개소, 신고채취장은 450개소이다. 선별파쇄가 약 407개소로 가장 많으며, 산림골재는 187개소, 육상골재는 123개소 내외이다. 100만㎥ 이상의 골재를 채취한 채취장은 14개소이며, 1만㎥ 미만의 소규모 채취장도 약 105개소이다. 약 350여개의 허가채취장에서 허가기간은 최장 34.8년에서 최소 0.1년이며, 허가기간이 10년 이상인 채취장은 103개소이다. 2022년 이후에도 채취 가능한 채취장은 258개이지만 5년 내로 320여개 이상의 채취장이 개발종료되어 28개의 채취장만이 5년 이상 채취가 가능하다.

주요어 모래, 자갈, 산림골재, 선별파쇄골재, 육상골재, 하천골재

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 871-885

Published online December 29, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Aggregate of Korea in 2022

Sei Sun Hong, Jin Young Lee*

Quaternary Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea

Correspondence to:*jylee@kigam.re.kr

Received: October 16, 2023; Revised: November 23, 2023; Accepted: November 24, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In 2022, the total of 129 million m3 of aggregate was produced in Korea, a slightly decrease from the total production of 2021. Of these, about 44 million m3 of sand and about 84 million m3 of gravel were produced. About 41% of total quantity of aggregates were produced by permission and the rest were produced after declaration. It estimated that of the 129 million m3 of aggregates in Korea in 2022, about 54.9% was produced by screening crushed aggregate, by 32.8% by forest aggregate, 2.2% by land aggregate, 6.2% by marine aggregate and 3.1% by washing aggregate, and 0.3% by river aggregate. This indicates that screening crushed and forest aggregate are the main producers of domestic aggregate in 2022. Leading producing metropolitan governments were Gyeonggi-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, Incheon, Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, Gangwon-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do in order decreasing volume. In 2022, aggregates were produced in 147 local governments, and the 10 leading producing local governments were, in descending order of volume, Hwaseong, Pocheon, Paju, Ongjin, Youngin, Gwangju, west EEZ, Incheon Seo-gu, Namyangju, Asan. The combined production of the 10 leading local governments accounted for 31% of the national total. And 44 local governments have produced aggregates of more than 1 million m3 each other. In 148 local governments that produced aggregate, a total of 800 active operations produced aggregate with 350 operations by river, land and forest aggregate, 450 operations by selective crushed and washing aggregate.

Keywords aggregate, sand, gravel, aggregate source, permitted period

2022년 한국의 골재

홍세선 · 이진영*

한국지질자원연구원 제4기환경연구센터

Received: October 16, 2023; Revised: November 23, 2023; Accepted: November 24, 2023

요 약

2022년에는 약 1억 2,874만 ㎥의 골재가 채취되었다. 이 중 모래는 약 4,427만 ㎥, 자갈은 약 8,447만 ㎥이다. 허가채취는 약 5,334만 ㎥, 신고채취는 약 7,540만 ㎥ 이다. 골재원별로는 선별파쇄에서 가장 많은 7,067만 ㎥가 채취되었으며, 그 다음으로 산림골재 4,214만 ㎥, 바다골재 797만 ㎥, 선별세척 403만 ㎥, 육상골재 286만 ㎥, 기타골재 70만 ㎥, 하천골재 37만 ㎥ 순으로 선별파쇄와 산림골재의 채취량이 전국 채취량의 약 87.6%에 달한다. 시도별로는 경기도가 가장 골재를 많이 채취하였으며, 그 다음으로 경상남도, 충청남도, 인천광역시, 전라남도의 순이다. 2022년에는 231개 시군구의 약 64%인 147개 시군구에서 골재를 채취하였다. 100만 ㎥ 이상의 골재를 채취한 시군구는 44개이며, 이들 시군구에서는 전국 채취량의 72%인 약 9,269만 ㎥를 채취하였다. 2022년도에는 약 960개소 정도의 채취장이 운영되었으나 실제 골재를 채취한 채취장은 약 800개소이다. 이중 허가채취장은 350개소, 신고채취장은 450개소이다. 선별파쇄가 약 407개소로 가장 많으며, 산림골재는 187개소, 육상골재는 123개소 내외이다. 100만㎥ 이상의 골재를 채취한 채취장은 14개소이며, 1만㎥ 미만의 소규모 채취장도 약 105개소이다. 약 350여개의 허가채취장에서 허가기간은 최장 34.8년에서 최소 0.1년이며, 허가기간이 10년 이상인 채취장은 103개소이다. 2022년 이후에도 채취 가능한 채취장은 258개이지만 5년 내로 320여개 이상의 채취장이 개발종료되어 28개의 채취장만이 5년 이상 채취가 가능하다.

주요어 모래, 자갈, 산림골재, 선별파쇄골재, 육상골재, 하천골재

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.The aggregate production in Korea. (A) production rate of permission and declaration, (B) sand and gravel.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.The aggregate production of (A) sand and (B) gravel by source of aggregate in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.The distribution map of domestic aggregate by local government. (unit : thousand ㎥). (A) total production of aggregate, (B) gravel, (C) sand, (D) river aggregate, (E) land aggregate, (F) forest aggregate, (G) marine aggregate, (H) crushed aggregate, (I) washing aggregate.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Histogram of aggregate production in Korea, by local government and by size of operation.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.The distribution map of active operations in 2022, by aggregate source and by quantity.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.The trend of aggregate production of Korea, from 1992 to 2022.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.The permitted period and remaining period after 2022 of operations.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 871-885https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.871

    The aggregate statistics, by sources, by permission and declaration, and sand and gravel(unit : thousand m3).


    PermissionDeclarationTotal
    SandGravelSumSandGravelSum
    River138234372000372
    Land2,7541072,861325372,898
    Forest6,16435,97742,14132933466342,804
    Marine7,96807,9680007,968
    Crushed---22,85647,80970,66570,665
    Washing---4,03104,0314,031
    Total17,02436,31853,34227,24848,14875,396128,738


    The aggregate production in Korea in 2022, by provinces and aggregate sources (unit : thousand m3).


    PermissionDeclarationTotal
    RiverLandForestMarineRiverLandForestMarineCrushedWashing
    SandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravelSandGravel
    Seoul000000000000000000000
    Incheon000006364,1090000000003354,26464109,985
    Gyeonggi-do00001,2824,191000000000013,41123,092318042,294
    Gangwon-do472827271,9353,018000024500006532,198008,763
    Chungcheongbuk-do00399304,64300000000002,3111,698009,054
    Daejeon000000000000000000000
    Sejong00250000000000000834729001,588
    Chungcheongnam-do0010201985,0134370000000001,9073,937278011,872
    Jeollabuk-do0032902484,0170000000000394821005,809
    Gwangju000000000000000000000
    Jeollanam-do0049601485,5241510008000002842,20327709,091
    Daegu000000000000000022616100387
    Gyeongsangbuk-do134162561594852,6750000000106001,2811,492006,955
    Busan00000000000000009501,59784803,395
    Ulsan000001,6950000000000077547402,944
    Gyeongsangnam-do001501,8684,088000000329228002704,323781011,902
    Jeju-do0001804770000000000051941401,428
    EEZ0000003,27100000000000003,271
    Total1382342,7541076,16435,9777,9680003253293340022,85647,8094,0310128,738


    Rank of local governments produced aggregate in Korea, 2022, by aggregate source.


    RiverLandForestMarineCrushedWashingSandGravelProduction of Aggregate
    1GumiGoseong (Gangwon)PajuOngjin (Incheon)HwaseongChangwonOngjinHwaseongHwaseong
    2PyeongchangHampyeongWonjuWestEEZPocheonSaha (Busan)WestEEZPajuPocheon
    3ChungjuYeoncheonTaeanYonginJung-gu (Incheon)PocheonSeo-gu (Incheon)Paju
    4CheongjuUlju (Ulsan)HaenamGwangjuPyeongtaekGwangjuPocheonOngjin (Incheon)
    5GochangGunsanSouthEEZNamyangjuNam-gu (Ulsan)YonginYonginYongin
    6GyeongjuGongjuSeo-gu (Incheon)JejuHoengseongGongjuGwangju
    7GangneungGimhaeAsanSeosanYangjuGwangjuWestEEZ
    8SangjuChungjuAnseongNam-gu (Busan)NamyangjuAsanSeo-gu (Incheon)
    9JangsuJincheonPajuSeo-gu (Incheon)HwaseongWonjuNamyangju
    10YechoenHoengseongGoyangUlju (Ulsan)PajuUlju (Ulsan)Asan
    11WonjuHamanYangjuHaenamIcheonAnseongGimhae
    12BoseongChuncheonSejongSeogwipoCheongjuNamyangjuCheongju
    13YeonggwangJangseongUiejeongbuGoheungSejongChungjuAnseong
    14YeongjuCheongjuEumseongSacheonGimhaeGunsanGongju
    15CheonanPocheonCheongjuGejuGihang (Busan)GimhaeWonju


    Aggregate production in Korea in 2022, by size of operation and quantity.


    Size range (thousand m3)TotalRiverLandForestMarineCrushedWashing
    QuantityLocal govern.QuantityLocal govern.QuantityLocal govern.QuantityLocal govern.QuantityLocal govern.QuantityLocal govern.QuantityLocal govern.
    <10446002951120027400
    ≥10~<502027261317147123412037441
    ≥50~<10055177615918527700664101562
    ≥100~<2002,85120001,02671,6101015112,780205724
    ≥200~<3003,54114270123812,0898002,652111,1034
    ≥300~<4002,783800001,3234001,75851003
    ≥400~<5004,4671000001,717443715,3051200
    ≥500~<6005,531100059512,7455004,34685311
    ≥600~<7004,503700003,9506002,54446251
    ≥700~<8006,188800007931002,310300
    ≥800~<9002,575300008301001,677200
    ≥900~<1,0002,817300004,769500913100
    ≥1,000~<1,50022,5861900007,1646009,584800
    ≥1,500~<2,00012,4737000011,9357005,189300
    ≥2,000~<2,50017,8988000000006,866300
    ≥2,500~<5,00028,410800002,60717,346217,625500
    ≥5,00011,3182000000006,223100
    Total128,73814737232,7963642,141697,968570,6661073,13116


    Active operation by permission, declaration, and by aggregate source, and by aggregate type.


    PermissionDeclarationTotal
    SandSand and gravelGravelSumSandSand and gravelGravelSum
    MarineForestLandRiverSubsumForestLandRiverSubsumForestLandRiverSubsumWashingCrushedLandSubsumForestCrushedLandSubsumForestCrushedSubsum
    EEZ16161616
    Gangwon627332237102125271851619193385
    Gyeonggi552271232456564444124131
    Gyeongnam11210102323351131412336365388
    Gyeongbuk312337111191818702323661151645115
    Daegu114455
    Busan44810101818
    Sejong222224422810
    Ulsan6662244612
    Incheon131311143251113131933
    Jeonnam14192424244833171117172573
    Jeonbuk21113222020356655661752
    Jeju7299131311112433
    Chungnam31373317172719108817173562
    Chungbuk1212161172923231114143867
    Sum331410621552913446144321493503810621461891911212213450800


    Aggregate production in Korea in 2022, by active operation and quantity.


    Size range (thousand m3)TotalRiverLandForestMarineCrushedWashing
    QuantityOperationQuantityOperationQuantityOperationQuantityOperationQuantityOperationQuantityOperationQuantityOperation
    <10504961643618875143461763471
    ≥10~<504,969201863681,41683129002,0487956020
    ≥50~<10010,56914600171,1502,8143723736,114852544
    ≥100~<20023,562159270111077,332501,290815,001995264
    ≥200~<30017,943723,860171,315510,558431,6176
    ≥300~<40014,132414,541131,59757,366216282
    ≥400~<50012,753292,552688228,881204381
    ≥500~<6008,161153,257657113,7767
    ≥600~<70010,455163,29451,26025,9019
    ≥700~<8005,88282,874478212,2263
    ≥800~<9001,69921,699200
    ≥900~<1,0009351935100
    ≥1,000~<1,50013,966126,89767,0696
    ≥1,500~<2,0003,20821,65711,5511
    ≥2,000~<2,500
    ≥2,500~<5,000
    ≥5,000
    total128,73880037281222,86142,6181917,9683370,6674074,03038


    The permitted period of operations and its remaining period after 2022, by aggregate sources.


    LandForestMarineRivertotal operation
    Permitted period (year)No. of operationPermitted periodNo. of operationPermitted periodNo. of operationPermitted periodNo. of operationPermitted periodNo. of operation
    >81over 303over 96over 101over 303
    5~6620~30133~4149~10120~3013
    4~5615~20352~3106~7115~2035
    3~4310~15511~24~5010~1552
    2~3205~10530~133~405~1068
    1~2601~5272~304~512
    0~1240~11~203~432
    0~152~335
    1~261
    0~132
    Remaining period (year) after 2022No. of operationRemaining period after 2022No. of operationRemaining period after 2022No. of operationRemaining period after 2022No. of operationRemaining period after 2022No. of operation
    >2210~1512~31>2110~151
    1~2225~10321~21~215~1032
    0~1561~5960~1160~144~513
    0~113~437
    2~333
    1~250
    0~1102
    inactive40inactive25inactive16inactive2inactive75

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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