Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site”

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 697-714

Published online December 29, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Study on Material Characteristics and Conservation Methods for Tracksite of Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs of Jeongchon area in Jinju, Korea

Ji Hyun Yoo1, Yu Bin Ahn1, Myoung Nam Kim2, Myeong Seong Lee1,*

1Conservation Science Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Republic of Korea
2Restoration Technology Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to : *mslee75@korea.kr

Received: November 10, 2023; Revised: November 30, 2023; Accepted: November 30, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Tracksite of Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs in Jeongchon, Jinju was discovered in late 2017 during the construction of the Ppuri industry complex. This site is a natural heritage site with a high paleontological value, as it preserves fossils of various types of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and animal traces at a dense concentration. In this study, we surveyed that physical weathering such as joint, crack, scaling, exfoliation, and fragmentation occurred through field research in the fossil site, and conducted basic research on conservation science to reduce the damage. To this end, among the eight levels identified after excavation, the rocks of Level 3, which yielded a large number of theropod footprint fossils, and Level 4, which yielded pterosaur footprint fossils, were analyzed for material characteristics and evaluation of the effectiveness of consolidation and adhesion. This results showed that the rocks in the Level 3 stratum were dark gray siltstone and the rocks in the Level 4 stratum were dark gray shale, which contained a large amount of calcite and were composed of quartz, plagioclase, mica, alkali feldspar, and other clay minerals, which are likely to be damaged by rainfall under external conditions. As a result of conducting an artificial weathering experiment by dividing the probationary sample into four groups: untreated, consolidation treatment, anti-swelling treatment, and adhesive treatment, the consolidation and the swelling inhibitor showed an effect immediately after treatment, but did not show a blocking effect under a freezing-thawing environment. The adhesive showed that the adhesive effect was maintained even under freezing-thawing conditions. In order to preserve the fossil sites at Jeongchon in the future, in addition to temporary measures to block the inflow of moisture, practical measures such as the construction of protective facilities should be prepared.

Keywords fossil, material characteristics, consolidation, artificial weathering, ultrasonic velocity

진주 정촌면 백악기 공룡·익룡발자국 화석산지의 재질특성 및 보존 방안 연구

유지현1 · 안유빈1 · 김명남2 · 이명성1,*

1국립문화재연구원 보존과학연구실
2국립문화재연구원 복원기술연구실

요 약

2017년 말 뿌리일반산업단지 조성과정에서 발견된 진주 정촌면 백악기 공룡·익룡발자국 화석산지는 다양한 종류의 공룡과 익룡, 동물의 흔적화석이 높은 밀집도로 보존되어 고생물학적 가치가 높은 자연유산이다. 이 연구에서는 화석산지의 현장조사를 통해 절리, 균열, 박리, 박락, 세편화 등 물리적 풍화가 발생하여 있음을 확인하고, 손상을 저감하기 위한 보존과학적 기초 연구를 수행하였다. 이를 위해 발굴 후 확인된 8개의 층준 중 수각류 발자국 화석이 다량 산출된 Level 3 층준과 익룡 발자국 화석이 산출된 Level 4 층준의 암석을 수습하여 재질분석 및 강화제와 접착제의 효과 검증 평가를 수행하였다. 이 결과, Level 3 층준의 암석은 암회색 실트암, Level 4의 암석은 암회색 셰일로 구성되어 있었으며 이들은 방해석을 다량 함유한 가운데 석영, 사장석, 운모, 알칼리장석, 기타 점토광물로 이루어져 외부 환경 하에서 강우에 따른 손상 가능성이 높을 것으로 판단된다. 수습 시료를 공시체로 제작하여 미처리, 강화제 처리, 팽윤저지제 처리, 접착제 처리의 네 그룹으로 나누어 인공풍화 실험을 수행한 결과, 강화제와 팽윤저지제는 처리 직후에는 효과를 보였으나 동결-융해 환경 하에서는 저지효과를 보이지 못하는 것으로 해석되었다. 접착제는 동결-융해 조건 하에서도 접착 효과가 유지되는 모습을 보였다. 향후 정촌면 화석산지의 보존을 위해서는 수분의 유입 차단을 위한 임시 방책 외에도 기 손상 화석의 응급 보존처리 및 보호시설 건립 등 실질적인 대처방안이 마련되어야 할 것이다.

주요어 화석산지, 재질특성, 강화처리, 인공풍화, 초음파 속도

Article

Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site”

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 697-714

Published online December 29, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Study on Material Characteristics and Conservation Methods for Tracksite of Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs of Jeongchon area in Jinju, Korea

Ji Hyun Yoo1, Yu Bin Ahn1, Myoung Nam Kim2, Myeong Seong Lee1,*

1Conservation Science Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Republic of Korea
2Restoration Technology Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:*mslee75@korea.kr

Received: November 10, 2023; Revised: November 30, 2023; Accepted: November 30, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Tracksite of Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs in Jeongchon, Jinju was discovered in late 2017 during the construction of the Ppuri industry complex. This site is a natural heritage site with a high paleontological value, as it preserves fossils of various types of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and animal traces at a dense concentration. In this study, we surveyed that physical weathering such as joint, crack, scaling, exfoliation, and fragmentation occurred through field research in the fossil site, and conducted basic research on conservation science to reduce the damage. To this end, among the eight levels identified after excavation, the rocks of Level 3, which yielded a large number of theropod footprint fossils, and Level 4, which yielded pterosaur footprint fossils, were analyzed for material characteristics and evaluation of the effectiveness of consolidation and adhesion. This results showed that the rocks in the Level 3 stratum were dark gray siltstone and the rocks in the Level 4 stratum were dark gray shale, which contained a large amount of calcite and were composed of quartz, plagioclase, mica, alkali feldspar, and other clay minerals, which are likely to be damaged by rainfall under external conditions. As a result of conducting an artificial weathering experiment by dividing the probationary sample into four groups: untreated, consolidation treatment, anti-swelling treatment, and adhesive treatment, the consolidation and the swelling inhibitor showed an effect immediately after treatment, but did not show a blocking effect under a freezing-thawing environment. The adhesive showed that the adhesive effect was maintained even under freezing-thawing conditions. In order to preserve the fossil sites at Jeongchon in the future, in addition to temporary measures to block the inflow of moisture, practical measures such as the construction of protective facilities should be prepared.

Keywords fossil, material characteristics, consolidation, artificial weathering, ultrasonic velocity

진주 정촌면 백악기 공룡·익룡발자국 화석산지의 재질특성 및 보존 방안 연구

유지현1 · 안유빈1 · 김명남2 · 이명성1,*

1국립문화재연구원 보존과학연구실
2국립문화재연구원 복원기술연구실

Received: November 10, 2023; Revised: November 30, 2023; Accepted: November 30, 2023

요 약

2017년 말 뿌리일반산업단지 조성과정에서 발견된 진주 정촌면 백악기 공룡·익룡발자국 화석산지는 다양한 종류의 공룡과 익룡, 동물의 흔적화석이 높은 밀집도로 보존되어 고생물학적 가치가 높은 자연유산이다. 이 연구에서는 화석산지의 현장조사를 통해 절리, 균열, 박리, 박락, 세편화 등 물리적 풍화가 발생하여 있음을 확인하고, 손상을 저감하기 위한 보존과학적 기초 연구를 수행하였다. 이를 위해 발굴 후 확인된 8개의 층준 중 수각류 발자국 화석이 다량 산출된 Level 3 층준과 익룡 발자국 화석이 산출된 Level 4 층준의 암석을 수습하여 재질분석 및 강화제와 접착제의 효과 검증 평가를 수행하였다. 이 결과, Level 3 층준의 암석은 암회색 실트암, Level 4의 암석은 암회색 셰일로 구성되어 있었으며 이들은 방해석을 다량 함유한 가운데 석영, 사장석, 운모, 알칼리장석, 기타 점토광물로 이루어져 외부 환경 하에서 강우에 따른 손상 가능성이 높을 것으로 판단된다. 수습 시료를 공시체로 제작하여 미처리, 강화제 처리, 팽윤저지제 처리, 접착제 처리의 네 그룹으로 나누어 인공풍화 실험을 수행한 결과, 강화제와 팽윤저지제는 처리 직후에는 효과를 보였으나 동결-융해 환경 하에서는 저지효과를 보이지 못하는 것으로 해석되었다. 접착제는 동결-융해 조건 하에서도 접착 효과가 유지되는 모습을 보였다. 향후 정촌면 화석산지의 보존을 위해서는 수분의 유입 차단을 위한 임시 방책 외에도 기 손상 화석의 응급 보존처리 및 보호시설 건립 등 실질적인 대처방안이 마련되어야 할 것이다.

주요어 화석산지, 재질특성, 강화처리, 인공풍화, 초음파 속도

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Post-excavation view of tracksite of cretaceous dinosaurs and pterosaurs of Jeongchon in Jinju. (A) Panoramic view, (B) Temporary preservation through tarpaulin, (C) Dinosaur footprint fossils and joints crossing them, (D) Crack and exfoliation of f ossil site rocks.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Sampling location of slabs and XPL images of thinsections. (A) Level 3A, (B) Level 3B, (C) Level 3C, (D) Level 4A, (E) Level 4B.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.X-ray diffraction analysis results by sample location. (A) Level 3A-1, (B) Level 3A-2, (C) Level 3A-3, (D) Level 3A-4, (E) Level 3A-5, (F) Level 3C, (G) Level 4A-1, (H) Level 4A-2, (I) Level 4A-3, (J) Level 4B-1, (K) Level 4B-2. Ch: Chlorite, Q: Quartz, M: Mica, Kln: Kaolinite, Pl: Plagioclase, Af: Alkali-feldspar, Cal: Calcite.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Chemical for rock consolidation(A~C) and treatment process of bonding samples(D~E). (A) Wacker Silres BS OH 100, (B) Remmers KSE 300, (C) Remmers Antihygro, (D) Split rock specimen, (E) Cleaning surfaces to join, (F) Apply Adhesion.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Artificial weathering process.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Representative sample showing changes according to artificial weathering cycles.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Graph of the change in mass with artificial weathering cycles.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Graph of the change in color difference with artificial weathering cycles(based on color when dry).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Graph of the change in ultrasonic velocity with artificial weathering cycles(Level 3 group).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Graph of the change in ultrasonic velocity with artificial weathering cycles(Level 4 group).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    Fig 11.

    Figure 11.Change of bulk rock samples by artificial weathering cycles. The left rock is Level 4, the center one is Level 3, the right one is Level 4(Adhesived). (A) Initial state, (B) 10 cycles, (C) 30 cycles, (D) 60 cycles, (E) 100 cycles, (F) 150 cycles.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 697-714https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.697

    10 years of environmental data for Jinju.


    2009201020112012201320142015201620172018Ave.
    Max. Temp.33.135.234.735.436.735.535.537.537.137.935.9
    Min. Temp.-14.1-12.5-15.6-14.3-13.0-10.6-11.5-12.8-12.0-14.3-13.1
    Rainy days95108110108931151251048399104
    Freeze-thaw days94108113112114100999312198105


    Group classification to verify the effect of treatment.


    LevelUntreated groupConsolidation groupAdhesion group
    OH 100KSE 300AntihygroL-30AXIA 911
    3UT-3ACA-3ACB-3ASI-3AAA-3AAB-3A
    CA-3BCB-3BSI-3BAA-3BAB-3B
    4UT-4ACA-4ACB-4ASI-4AAA-4AAB-4A
    UT-4BCA-4BCB-4BSI-4BAA-4BAB-4B


    Physical properties of specimens for artificial weathering.


    SpecimenSpecific gravityAbsorption rateMass of the specimen (g)
    DrySaturationUnderwater
    UT-3A2.690.77668.83674.00420.42
    UT-4A2.710.33698.18700.48440.53
    UT-4B2.701.51658.49668.45414.30
    CA-3A2.701.36671.03680.13422.18
    CA-3B2.690.78663.39668.56417.02
    CA-4A2.751.50660.04669.95419.89
    CA-4B2.701.67644.75655.49405.62
    CB-3A2.691.45651.68661.13409.61
    CB-3B2.700.79673.53678.88423.70
    CB-4A2.710.33708.95711.26447.28
    CB-4B2.691.61638.63648.93401.65
    SI-3A2.690.85641.85647.28403.34
    SI-3B2.680.62623.79627.63391.18
    SI-4A2.701.51664.20674.22418.08
    SI-4B2.681.73651.45662.69408.66
    AA-3A2.701.09579.56585.87365.08
    AA-3B2.701.17584.38591.24367.91
    AA-4A2.710.42689.12691.98434.73
    AA-4B2.710.70688.40693.23433.98
    AB-3A2.701.10607.03613.70382.24
    AB-3B2.701.19581.10588.00365.90
    AB-4A2.710.42708.54711.53447.23
    AB-4B2.710.36687.77690.23433.88


    Mass changes of the specimen according to the artificial weathering cycle.


    GroupSpecimenAbsorp-tion rateMass of the specimen (g)
    DryAfter treated0 cycles10 cycles30 cycles60 cycles100 cycles150 cycles
    UntreatedUT-3A0.77668.83670.37670.71672.84673.46673.13673.46673.51
    UntreatedUT-4A0.33698.18699.29699.59700.29700.62700.71700.74700.70
    UntreatedUT-4B1.51658.49660.41660.96665.92666.93665.77666.32666.27
    OH 100CA-3A1.36671.03677.17677.03677.64678.37678.73679.06679.21
    OH 100CA-3B0.78663.39666.56666.56666.80667.19667.30667.45667.62
    OH 100CA-4A1.50660.04667.88668.15668.59669.39669.76669.93670.13
    OH 100CA-4B1.67644.75653.87652.93653.73654.73655.12655.80656.10
    KSE 300CB-3A1.45651.68658.48657.68658.06658.91659.71660.03660.30
    KSE 300CB-3B0.79673.53677.16677.05677.23677.94678.21678.45678.57
    KSE 300CB-4A0.33708.95710.07710.35710.69711.13711.52711.72711.88
    KSE 300CB-4B1.61638.63647.23645.50646.38647.44647.94648.28648.23
    AntihygroSI-3A0.85641.85646.66644.97646.69646.93646.55646.62646.68
    AntihygroSI-3B0.62623.79627.09625.84627.21627.86627.59627.66627.84
    AntihygroSI-4A1.51664.20672.46668.50672.04672.67671.40671.91671.70
    AntihygroSI-4B1.73651.45661.02656.96660.87661.43660.26660.59659.93
    L-30AA-3A1.09579.56579.95580.42583.40583.87583.16583.10583.12
    L-30AA-3B1.17584.38584.87585.41588.66589.25588.56588.53588.32
    L-30AA-4A0.42689.12690.26690.65691.45692.08692.36692.48692.55
    L-30AA-4B0.70688.40691.08691.58693.32694.11694.09694.24694.31
    AXIA 911AB-3A1.10607.03607.66608.12611.22611.78611.05611.25611.23
    AXIA 911AB-3B1.19581.10581.72582.17585.11585.83585.09585.19585.16
    AXIA 911AB-4A0.42708.54709.95710.27711.19711.77711.85711.93711.90
    AXIA 911AB-4B0.36687.77688.42688.73689.59690.02689.93689.95689.97


    Grade of the color difference(Mokrzycki and Tatol, 2011).


    GradeΔE*A standard observer sees the difference in color
    10 < ΔE* < 1Observer does not notice the difference
    21 < ΔE* < 2Only experienced observer can notice the difference
    32 < ΔE* < 3.5Unexperienced observer also notices the difference
    43.5 < ΔE* < 5Clear difference in color is noticed
    55 < ΔE*Observer notices two different colors


    Color difference of the specimen according to the artificial weathering cycle.


    GroupSpecimenAbsorption rateColor difference(ΔE*)Grade (ΔE*)
    10 cycles30 cycles60 cycles100 cycles150 cycles
    UntreatedUT-3A0.771.963.535.135.155.765
    UntreatedUT-4A0.330.440.490.400.872.023
    UntreatedUT-4B1.512.092.653.293.453.804
    OH 100CA-3A1.3610.406.034.794.564.724
    OH 100CA-3B0.788.025.554.594.394.654
    OH 100CA-4A1.509.552.500.463.133.624
    OH 100CA-4B1.6711.738.846.545.826.075
    KSE 300CB-3A1.457.265.284.894.394.474
    KSE 300CB-3B0.791.170.941.261.452.063
    KSE 300CB-4A0.333.001.250.960.490.891
    KSE 300CB-4B1.612.470.930.390.580.801
    AntihygroSI-3A0.851.071.251.632.483.293
    AntihygroSI-3B0.623.352.502.302.122.223
    AntihygroSI-4A1.511.010.790.901.402.093
    AntihygroSI-4B1.731.141.161.582.603.844
    L-30AA-3A1.091.862.924.085.375.935
    L-30AA-3B1.178.2810.1317.5612.1016.205
    L-30AA-4A0.422.321.820.562.313.864
    L-30AA-4B0.701.312.962.841.222.163
    AXIA 911AB-3A1.100.601.882.133.214.184
    AXIA 911AB-3B1.190.961.671.732.314.694
    AXIA 911AB-4A0.421.962.112.601.922.093
    AXIA 911AB-4B0.361.671.760.410.741.712

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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