Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site”

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 661-674

Published online December 29, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Non-Destructive Material Analysis of Whetstones Discovered in Grain Transport Ship of the Early Joseon Period

Dal-Yong Kong1,*, Jae Hwan Kim2, Eun Young Park1, Yong Cheol Cho1, Ki Hong Yang1

1National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage, Taean 32132, Korea
2Natural Heritage Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 35204, Korea

Correspondence to : *kong.dalyong@daum.net

Received: November 9, 2023; Revised: December 3, 2023; Accepted: December 4, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

From the seafloor of Taean, Chungcheongnamdo Province, a ship of the Joseon Dynasty was discovered for the first time in the history of underwater excavations in Korea in 2014 and was named Mado Shipwreck No. 4. A total of 27 unused whetstones loaded as tribute were discovered on the hull of Mado No. 4, which revealed that Mado Shipwreck No. 4 was a Grain transport ship that sank while carrying tribute from Naju to Hanyang between 1417 and 1425 (King Taejong to King Sejong). All of the 27 whetstones are in the shape of narrow and long sticks. The average values of length, width, thickness, and weight are 161.5 mm, 36.1 mm, 22.7 mm, and 253.2 g, respectively. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the constituent minerals are quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase, which is similar to that of the high-resolution digital stereomicroscope analysis. The average porosity of Mado-2672 and 2673 is 2.69% and 1.78%, respectively, and the average surface hardness is 807.2HLD and 834.5HLD, respectively. It is interpreted that if the porosity increases beyond a certain level, it affects the decrease in surface hardness. All of these are made of feldspathic sandstones with an average SiO2 content of 74.51% and were confirmed to be suitable as grindstones. They are all medium whetstones when classified based on the SiO2 content. These whetstones are small in size and weight and are convenient to carry, so they are presumed to be a type of non-stationary whetstone, and are estimated to have been mainly used in the fields such as weapon polishing and craft production during the Joseon Dynasty.

Keywords whetstone, Taean, Joseon Dynasty, Mado Shipwreck No. 4, Grain transport ship

조선 초기 조운선(마도4호선)에서 출수된 숫돌의 비파괴 재질 분석 연구

공달용1,* · 김재환2 · 박은영1 · 조용철1 · 양기홍1

1국립해양문화재연구소 서해문화재과
2국립문화재연구원 자연문화재구실

요 약

충남 태안 해역에서는 2014년 국내 수중발굴 역사상 처음으로 조선시대 선박이 발견되어 마도4호선으로 명명되었다. 마도4호선은 발굴된 유물을 통해 1417~1425년(태종~세종) 사이 나주에서 공물을 싣고 한양으로 가다 침몰한 조운선임이 밝혀졌다. 마도4호선의 선체에서는 공물로 적재된 총 27점의 미사용 숫돌이 발견되었다. 27점 숫돌은 모두 폭이 좁고 긴 막대기 형태이며. 길이, 폭, 두께 및 무게의 평균값은 각각 161.5mm, 36.1mm, 22.7mm 및 253.2g 이다. X-선 회절 분석 결과, 구성광물은 석영, 알칼리장석, 사장석으로 고해상도 디지털 실체현미경 분석 결과와 유사하다. 마도-2672와 2673의 평균 공극률은 각각 2.69%와 1.78%, 평균 표면 경도는 각각 807.2HLD와 834.5HLD로 공극률이 일정 이상 증가하면 표면 경도 감소에 영향을 미치는 것으로 해석된다. 이들은 모두 장석질 사암(Arkose)이며 SiO2의 함량은 평균 74.51%로 숫돌로서 적합함이 확인되었다. 27점의 숫돌은 SiO2의 함량을 기준으로 구분할 때, 중간 숫돌에 해당한다. 이들 숫돌은 크기와 무게가 작고 휴대하기 편리한 특징을 갖고 있어 비고정식 숫돌의 한 종류로 추정되며, 조선시대 무기 연마와 공예품 제작 등 특수분야에 주로 사용된 것으로 판단된다.

주요어 숫돌, 태안, 조선시대, 마도4호선, 조운선

Article

Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site”

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 661-674

Published online December 29, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Non-Destructive Material Analysis of Whetstones Discovered in Grain Transport Ship of the Early Joseon Period

Dal-Yong Kong1,*, Jae Hwan Kim2, Eun Young Park1, Yong Cheol Cho1, Ki Hong Yang1

1National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage, Taean 32132, Korea
2Natural Heritage Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 35204, Korea

Correspondence to:*kong.dalyong@daum.net

Received: November 9, 2023; Revised: December 3, 2023; Accepted: December 4, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

From the seafloor of Taean, Chungcheongnamdo Province, a ship of the Joseon Dynasty was discovered for the first time in the history of underwater excavations in Korea in 2014 and was named Mado Shipwreck No. 4. A total of 27 unused whetstones loaded as tribute were discovered on the hull of Mado No. 4, which revealed that Mado Shipwreck No. 4 was a Grain transport ship that sank while carrying tribute from Naju to Hanyang between 1417 and 1425 (King Taejong to King Sejong). All of the 27 whetstones are in the shape of narrow and long sticks. The average values of length, width, thickness, and weight are 161.5 mm, 36.1 mm, 22.7 mm, and 253.2 g, respectively. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the constituent minerals are quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase, which is similar to that of the high-resolution digital stereomicroscope analysis. The average porosity of Mado-2672 and 2673 is 2.69% and 1.78%, respectively, and the average surface hardness is 807.2HLD and 834.5HLD, respectively. It is interpreted that if the porosity increases beyond a certain level, it affects the decrease in surface hardness. All of these are made of feldspathic sandstones with an average SiO2 content of 74.51% and were confirmed to be suitable as grindstones. They are all medium whetstones when classified based on the SiO2 content. These whetstones are small in size and weight and are convenient to carry, so they are presumed to be a type of non-stationary whetstone, and are estimated to have been mainly used in the fields such as weapon polishing and craft production during the Joseon Dynasty.

Keywords whetstone, Taean, Joseon Dynasty, Mado Shipwreck No. 4, Grain transport ship

조선 초기 조운선(마도4호선)에서 출수된 숫돌의 비파괴 재질 분석 연구

공달용1,* · 김재환2 · 박은영1 · 조용철1 · 양기홍1

1국립해양문화재연구소 서해문화재과
2국립문화재연구원 자연문화재구실

Received: November 9, 2023; Revised: December 3, 2023; Accepted: December 4, 2023

요 약

충남 태안 해역에서는 2014년 국내 수중발굴 역사상 처음으로 조선시대 선박이 발견되어 마도4호선으로 명명되었다. 마도4호선은 발굴된 유물을 통해 1417~1425년(태종~세종) 사이 나주에서 공물을 싣고 한양으로 가다 침몰한 조운선임이 밝혀졌다. 마도4호선의 선체에서는 공물로 적재된 총 27점의 미사용 숫돌이 발견되었다. 27점 숫돌은 모두 폭이 좁고 긴 막대기 형태이며. 길이, 폭, 두께 및 무게의 평균값은 각각 161.5mm, 36.1mm, 22.7mm 및 253.2g 이다. X-선 회절 분석 결과, 구성광물은 석영, 알칼리장석, 사장석으로 고해상도 디지털 실체현미경 분석 결과와 유사하다. 마도-2672와 2673의 평균 공극률은 각각 2.69%와 1.78%, 평균 표면 경도는 각각 807.2HLD와 834.5HLD로 공극률이 일정 이상 증가하면 표면 경도 감소에 영향을 미치는 것으로 해석된다. 이들은 모두 장석질 사암(Arkose)이며 SiO2의 함량은 평균 74.51%로 숫돌로서 적합함이 확인되었다. 27점의 숫돌은 SiO2의 함량을 기준으로 구분할 때, 중간 숫돌에 해당한다. 이들 숫돌은 크기와 무게가 작고 휴대하기 편리한 특징을 갖고 있어 비고정식 숫돌의 한 종류로 추정되며, 조선시대 무기 연마와 공예품 제작 등 특수분야에 주로 사용된 것으로 판단된다.

주요어 숫돌, 태안, 조선시대, 마도4호선, 조운선

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.The location of Mado Shipwreck No. 4. and excavated hull and artifacts. Four ships and more than 26,000 artifacts from the Goryeo Dynasty were already discovered around the Mado Shipwreck No. 4.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 661-674https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.The location of the whetstone within Mado Shipwreck No. 4 (A), appearance of the whetstones at the time of discovery (B), and the studied samples (C: Specimen no. Mado-2672-01~15, D: Mado-2673-01~12).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 661-674https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Lithological and mineralogical characteristics of whetstones. A, B: Digital stereo microscope photos of whetstone. C, D: X-ray diffraction patterns of whetstones. E: Magnetic susceptibilities showing the stone properties of whetstones.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 661-674https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Comparison of physical properties of whetstones of Mado-2672(green) and Mado-2673(brown). A: specific gravity. B: porosity. C: absorption. D: correlation of porosity and absorption. E: surface hardness. F: correlation of porosity and surface hardness.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 661-674https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Geochemical relationship between the contents (%) of major cations and SiO2 (A~E), (F) rock classification of Mado-2672 and Mado-2673.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 661-674https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Comparison of size (length, width, thickness) and weight of Mado-2672 and Mado-2673 whetstones.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 661-674https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.6.661

    Whetstone production area identified in the literatures of the Joseon Dynasty.


    RegionSejongsillok jirijiSinjeung-dongguk yeojiseungnamSeungjeongwon IlgiYeojidoseoUigweetc.
    GyeongsangdoGeochangxxOxxx
    DanseongxxOOxO
    YeonilOOOOOO
    JeolladoGosanxxOOxx
    NajuxOxOxO
    BoseongxOxxxx
    TaeinxOxOxx
    GangwondoGangneungxxOxxx


    Information of the studied whetstones (Mado-2672 and Mado-2673).


    Specimen no.Size (mm)Weight (g)Color
    LengthWidthThickness
    Mado-2672-01163.131.726.9262.2Dark gray
    -02150.944.017.7233.4Dark gray
    -03137.835.621.0209.3Gray
    -04161.545.314.2218.9Gray
    -05158.435.320.1209.6Gray
    -06153.429.916.9141.4Dark gray
    -07157.236.723.5245.9Gray
    -08154.032.028.4290.8Gray
    -09136.831.317.9120Light gray
    -10163.835.916.2176.1Dark gray
    -11179.141.122.1295.1Light gray
    -12176.644..125.7299.4Gray
    -13190.132.422.2242.6Gray
    -14177.135.433.3442.8Gray
    -15177.440.528.5290.2Gray
    Mean162.536.722.3245.2-
    Mado-2673-01216.442.330.6417.0Gray
    -02176.838.832.7507.2Dark gray
    -03162.934.323.3256.4Gray
    -04134.833.217.3158.6Dark gray
    -05149.730.424.9209.3Gray
    -06167.736.827.4222.4Gray
    -07148.537.917.3223.1Gray
    -08166.528.924.7261.8Dark gray
    -09156.036.419.2230.7Light gray
    -10178.945.020.8325.5Light gray
    -11123.927.916.7122.0Dark gray
    -12142.233.621.1200.6Gray
    Mean160.435.523.0261.2-


    Physical properties and magnetic susceptibility of the whetstones of Mado-2672 and Mado-2673.


    Specimen no.Specific gravityPorosity (%)Absorption ratio (%)Surface hardness (HLD)Magnetic Susceptibility (x10-3SI)
    MinMaxMean
    Mado-2672-012.532.450.99858.00.770.870.833
    -022.622.300.90843.30.771.010.906
    -032.522.130.86841.01.101.431.286
    -042.551.940.78792.20.721.060.848
    -052.622.911.15814.60.320.390.363
    -062.551.420.57800.70.720.910.823
    -072.542.020.81861.71.331.361.348
    -082.521.030.41864.70.400.480.426
    -092.569.634.17599.60.080.100.088
    -102.530.570.23780.60.400.470.434
    -112.524.872.03666.20.530.770.641
    -122.532.881.17836.30.971.291.137
    -132.531.340.54835.80.771.050.941
    -142.602.410.95860.80.550.910.707
    -152.622.470.96852.40.450.550.490
    Mean2.562.691.10807.190.660.840.75
    Mado-2673-012.533.631.49825.00.460.760.614
    -022.531.810.73893.31.521.761.594
    -032.562.340.94843.30.641.210.935
    -042.540.640.25782.00.150.290.222
    -052.540.840.33856.70.691.000.843
    -062.544.061.66808.70.570.660.631
    -072.531.670.67763.00.150.230.192
    -082.530.670.27859.00.801.341.197
    -092.531.620.65853.70.661.020.814
    -102.521.070.43862.00.570.710.659
    -112.561.240.49808.70.821.060.938
    -122.611.790.70859.00.690.900.763
    Mean2.541.780.72834.530.640.910.78


    Representative compositions of major elements (wt.%) in the whetstones of Mado-2672 and Mado-2673.


    Specimen no.Major elements (wt%)
    SiO2Al2O3MgOK2OCaOFe2O3
    Mado-2672-0174.0213.561.477.541.701.51
    -0275.9611.821.036.191.591.72
    -0374.3413.251.867.421.581.60
    -0474.8212.062.097.991.561.68
    -0574.3813.751.527.801.381.45
    -0674.5913.711.287.411.302.37
    -0773.5614.051.187.551.741.44
    -0873.9413.001.357.671.761.92
    -0972.4610.802.209.831.092.80
    -1074.9013.631.327.041.581.75
    -1173.1413.421.628.480.862.46
    -1273.6213.741.177.841.731.39
    -1375.8212.811.107.210.781.49
    -1473.9513.651.228.121.781.47
    -1574.0614.110.947.351.481.78
    Mado-2673-0172.9211.812.567.421.842.38
    -0274.3213.551.597.521.352.33
    -0374.9013.901.067.620.751.52
    -0474.9913.511.427.621.121.53
    -0575.0213.361.777.201.271.37
    -0673.6513.611.897.471.171.79
    -0775.1112.391.878.280.571.60
    -0874.8513.831.368.030.651.57
    -0975.1512.991.757.581.621.01
    -1076.1513.761.147.191.400.83
    -1175.0612.831.697.730.891.24
    -1275.1613.281.897.361.501.27

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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