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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(5): 619-628

Published online October 30, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Transfer of Arsenic and Mercury from Stabilized Farmland Soil to Lettuce using Calcium Sulfate Fertilizer with Different Physical Properties as a Stabilizing Agent

Il-Ha Koh1, Yo Seb Kwon1,2, Min-Hyeon Lee1, Jung-Eun Kim1,3, So-Young Park1,3, Ju In Ko4, Won Hyun Ji3,*

1National Environment Lab. (NeLab), Seoul, 02841, Korea
2Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Korea
3Department of Energy & Climate Environment Fusion Technology, Graduate School, Hoseo University, Asan, 31499, Korea
4Technology Research & Development Institute, Korea Mine Rehabilitation and Mineral Resources Corporation, Wonju, 26464, Korea

Correspondence to : *greenidea@hoseo.edu

Received: July 19, 2023; Revised: October 5, 2023; Accepted: October 11, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the feasibility of calcium sulfate fertilizer as a stabilizing agent for As and Hg contaminated farmland soil and its stabilization characteristics in 3 different physical forms (particulate, powder, and solution) through a pot experiment including 34 days of lettuce growth. As and Hg contents of the lettuce grown in the stabilized soils were decreased by at least 70%. However the lettuce yield of the soil stabilized with the solution agent was decreased by 46% due to the overabundance of the nutrients from the solution agent. Thus, if a solution-type agent is planned for agricultural farmland soil stabilization, additional tests for optimal dosage are needed to preserve vegetation growth. In Hg fractionation, a lower concentration of elemental fractions and a higher concentration of residual/sulfide fractions were identified in the soils stabilized with the solution, powder, and pariculate agents in descending order while there were no significant changes in As fractionation. Overall results suggest that calcium sulfate fertilizer can be used as a stabilizing agent, and a solution-type agent could be used when the operation of heavy machinery for the soil stabilization process is impossible.

Keywords stabilization, calcium sulfate fertilizer, physical properties, arsenic, mercury

안정화제로 사용된 황산칼슘비료의 물리적 형태에 따른 토양 비소 및 수은의 안정화와 식물체 전이특성

고일하1 · 권요셉1,2 · 이민현1 · 김정은1,3 · 박소영1,3 · 고주인4 · 지원현3,*

1환경기술정책연구원 (NeLab)
2세종대학교 에너지자원공학과
3호서대학교 일반대학원 에너지기후환경융합기술학과
4한국광해광업공단 기술연구원

요 약

본 연구에서는 토양 내 비소 및 수은의 안정화제로 황산칼슘비료의 적용 가능성을 검토하였다. 아울러 황산칼슘비료의 물리적 특성(입자상, 미분상, 용액상)에 따른 비소 및 수은의 안정화 특성을 상추 재배 포트실험으로 비교?검토하였다. 34일 간의 상추 재배를 통해 확인한 비소 및 수은의 전이감소 효과는 대체적으로 70% 이상인 것으로 나타나 안정화제로서의 적용성을 확인하였다. 다만, 용액상 안정화제 처리조건에서 성장한 상추의 생체량은 대조구의 46% 수준으로 가장 낮았는데, 이는 안정화제로부터 유래된 영양물질의 유효도가 극단적으로 높아 오히려 식물체 성장을 저해한 것으로 판단되었다. 토양 내 비소 및 수은의 분획특성 확인결과 수은에서만 존재형태의 변화가 크게 나타났다. 수은은 안정화 처리된 토양에서 원소수은의 감소와 잔류형/황화물 형태의 증가가 확인되었는데, 이러한 경향은 용액상 > 미분상 > 입자상의 순서로 나타났다. 본 연구를 통해 대형 교반장비의 진입이 어려운 농경지에서는 용액상 처리제의 살포만으로 안정화 효과를 얻을 수 있음을 확인하였다. 다만, 높은 영양물질 유효도로 인해 염해토양의 특성을 보일 수 있으므로, 투여량 조절을 통해 농작물 위해를 사전 제어할 필요가 있다.

주요어 안정화, 황산칼슘비료, 물리적 특성, 비소, 수은

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(5): 619-628

Published online October 30, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Transfer of Arsenic and Mercury from Stabilized Farmland Soil to Lettuce using Calcium Sulfate Fertilizer with Different Physical Properties as a Stabilizing Agent

Il-Ha Koh1, Yo Seb Kwon1,2, Min-Hyeon Lee1, Jung-Eun Kim1,3, So-Young Park1,3, Ju In Ko4, Won Hyun Ji3,*

1National Environment Lab. (NeLab), Seoul, 02841, Korea
2Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Korea
3Department of Energy & Climate Environment Fusion Technology, Graduate School, Hoseo University, Asan, 31499, Korea
4Technology Research & Development Institute, Korea Mine Rehabilitation and Mineral Resources Corporation, Wonju, 26464, Korea

Correspondence to:*greenidea@hoseo.edu

Received: July 19, 2023; Revised: October 5, 2023; Accepted: October 11, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the feasibility of calcium sulfate fertilizer as a stabilizing agent for As and Hg contaminated farmland soil and its stabilization characteristics in 3 different physical forms (particulate, powder, and solution) through a pot experiment including 34 days of lettuce growth. As and Hg contents of the lettuce grown in the stabilized soils were decreased by at least 70%. However the lettuce yield of the soil stabilized with the solution agent was decreased by 46% due to the overabundance of the nutrients from the solution agent. Thus, if a solution-type agent is planned for agricultural farmland soil stabilization, additional tests for optimal dosage are needed to preserve vegetation growth. In Hg fractionation, a lower concentration of elemental fractions and a higher concentration of residual/sulfide fractions were identified in the soils stabilized with the solution, powder, and pariculate agents in descending order while there were no significant changes in As fractionation. Overall results suggest that calcium sulfate fertilizer can be used as a stabilizing agent, and a solution-type agent could be used when the operation of heavy machinery for the soil stabilization process is impossible.

Keywords stabilization, calcium sulfate fertilizer, physical properties, arsenic, mercury

안정화제로 사용된 황산칼슘비료의 물리적 형태에 따른 토양 비소 및 수은의 안정화와 식물체 전이특성

고일하1 · 권요셉1,2 · 이민현1 · 김정은1,3 · 박소영1,3 · 고주인4 · 지원현3,*

1환경기술정책연구원 (NeLab)
2세종대학교 에너지자원공학과
3호서대학교 일반대학원 에너지기후환경융합기술학과
4한국광해광업공단 기술연구원

Received: July 19, 2023; Revised: October 5, 2023; Accepted: October 11, 2023

요 약

본 연구에서는 토양 내 비소 및 수은의 안정화제로 황산칼슘비료의 적용 가능성을 검토하였다. 아울러 황산칼슘비료의 물리적 특성(입자상, 미분상, 용액상)에 따른 비소 및 수은의 안정화 특성을 상추 재배 포트실험으로 비교?검토하였다. 34일 간의 상추 재배를 통해 확인한 비소 및 수은의 전이감소 효과는 대체적으로 70% 이상인 것으로 나타나 안정화제로서의 적용성을 확인하였다. 다만, 용액상 안정화제 처리조건에서 성장한 상추의 생체량은 대조구의 46% 수준으로 가장 낮았는데, 이는 안정화제로부터 유래된 영양물질의 유효도가 극단적으로 높아 오히려 식물체 성장을 저해한 것으로 판단되었다. 토양 내 비소 및 수은의 분획특성 확인결과 수은에서만 존재형태의 변화가 크게 나타났다. 수은은 안정화 처리된 토양에서 원소수은의 감소와 잔류형/황화물 형태의 증가가 확인되었는데, 이러한 경향은 용액상 > 미분상 > 입자상의 순서로 나타났다. 본 연구를 통해 대형 교반장비의 진입이 어려운 농경지에서는 용액상 처리제의 살포만으로 안정화 효과를 얻을 수 있음을 확인하였다. 다만, 높은 영양물질 유효도로 인해 염해토양의 특성을 보일 수 있으므로, 투여량 조절을 통해 농작물 위해를 사전 제어할 필요가 있다.

주요어 안정화, 황산칼슘비료, 물리적 특성, 비소, 수은

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.The photograph of the lettuce at the end of cultivation ((A) control; (B) amended with the particulate-type agent; (C) amended with the powder-type agent; (D) amended with the solution-type agent, triplicate pots per treatment).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 619-628https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.The average biomass of aerial parts of lettuce grown in stabilized soils using the stabilizing agent with different physical properties.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 619-628https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.As and Hg contents of the lettuce grown in the stabilized soils using the stabilizing agent with different physical properties.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 619-628https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.As fractionation in the stabilized soils using the stabilizing agent with different physical properties.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 619-628https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Hg fractionation in the stabilized soils using the stabilizing agent with different physical properties.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 619-628https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.5.619

    The pH and concentrations of inorganic contaminants in the farmland where the studied soil sampled from.


    -pH ( - )Conc. of inorganic elements (mg/kg)
    AsCdHgNiPb
    Standard(1)Worrisome-2544100200
    Countermeasure-751212300400
    Farmland Soil7.1±0.11,061.00±569.57N.D(2)4.73±3.3514.98±1.0087.50±40.51

    (1) Criteria for agricultural soil from soil environment conservation act of Korea.

    (2) Not Determined.



    Sequential extraction procedure for As in soils.


    StepPhaseExtraction conditionNote
    1Non-specifically sorbed0.05 M (NH4)2SO4, 4 h shaking, 20℃ICP-OES (Wenzel et al., 2001)
    2Specifically sorbed0.05 M (NH4)2H2PO4, 16 h shaking, 20℃
    3Amorphous hydrous oxides of Fe & Al0.2M NH4-oxalate buffer, pH 3.25, 4 h shaking in the dark, 20℃
    4Crystallized hydrous oxides of Fe & Al0.2 M NH4-oxalate buffer + 0.1 M ascorbic acid, pH 3.25, 30 min in a water basin, 96±3℃ in the light
    5ResidualAqua regiaICP-OES (NIER, 2022)


    Sequential extraction procedure for Hg in soils (Lechler et al., 1997).


    StepPhaseExtraction conditionNote
    Total conc.-Direct Hg Analyzer
    Elemental HgOven for 48 h at 180℃ (Total conc.-(conc. of heated sample))
    Exchangeable Hg0.5 M MgCl2, mixing 2 hAA
    Strongly bound Hg0.5 N HCl, mixing 2 h
    Organic Hg0.2 N NaOH, mixing 2 hDirect Hg Analyzer
    4% CH3COOH, mixing 2 h
    Residual & HgSTotal conc.-(①+②+③+④)-


    The pH and concentrations of inorganic contaminants in the studied soil.


    -pH ( - )Conc. of inorganic elements (mg/kg)
    AsCdHgNiPb
    Standard(1)Worrisome-2544100200
    Countermeasure-751212300400
    Studied Soil6.9591.99N.D(2)2.2311.6974.1

    (1) Criteria for agricultural soil from soil environment conservation act of Korea.

    (2) Not Detected.


    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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