Research Paper

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(3): 229-238

Published online June 30, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.3.229

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Behavior of Heavy Metals Studies on the Hydrothermal Alteration Characteristics of Bentonite; Use as Medicinal Mineral

Seon-ok Kim, Sookyun Wang*

Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to : *sookyun@pknu.ac.kr

Received: February 13, 2023; Revised: June 6, 2023; Accepted: June 6, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bentonite is a type of rock that has been used as a traditional mineral medicine. It has a variety of pharmacological activities, and is used in traditional Korean medicine to treat jaundice, diarrhea, and hemostasis. In modern medicine, it is used as a raw material and additive for medicines such as antacids, gastrointestinal protective agents, and laxatives.
Bentonite produced in Korea was produced through diagenesis or hydrothermal alteration of tertiary volcanic debris distributed in the Pohang and Gyeongju areas. It is mainly used for industrial purposes such as papermaking, paint, civil engineering, casting, and animal feed. Recently, technology is being developed to use it in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In this study, the geochemical characteristics of bentonite were identified by analyzing the main components and trace elements of 40 and 21 types of bentonite produced in the Gampo Gyeongju and Yeonil Pohang area. Also it were classifed by formation envrionment of bentonite deposits in the Gampo and Yeonil. As a result of the study, bentonite from the reserch area may be cased by argillic alteraton that alkali elements are removed form basaltic rocks by hydrothermal fluids and AI-CCPI alteration indices wrere also indentified argillic alteraton. It was found that there is a correlation between the behavior characteristics of heavy metal elements (Pb, Cr, As) and the hydrothermal alteration of bentonite in the reserch area.

Keywords bentonite, mineral medicine, weathering, hydrothermal alteration, heavy metal

벤토나이트의 열수변질특성에 따른 중금속의 거동 특성 : 광물성 약재로의 활용

김선옥 · 왕수균*

부경대학교 에너지자원공학과

요 약

전통적인 광물성 약재로서 활용되어온 석지의 한 종류인 벤토나이트는 다양한 약리 활성을 가지고 있어 한의학에서는 황달, 설사, 지혈 등의 치료제로 쓰이며, 현대 의학에서는 제산제, 위장관보호제, 지사제 등의 의약품 원료 및 의약품 첨가제로 활용하고 있다. 국내에서 생산되는 벤토나이트는 포항, 경주 일대에 분포하는 제3기 화산쇄설물이 속성작용 또는 열수변질작용을 받아 생성되었다. 주로 제지용, 페인트용, 토목용, 주물용, 동물사료용 등의 산업적 용도로 사용하고 있으며, 최근 화장품 및 의약품으로 활용하기 위해 기술을 개발하고 있다. 이 연구에서는 경주 감포 지역과 포항 영일 지역에서 산출되는 벤토나이트 40종와 21종을 대상으로 주성분, 미량원소 분석을 실시하여, 산지별 벤토나이트의 지구화학적 특성을 파악하였고, 포항, 경주 일대에 분포하는 벤토나이트 광상의 생성환경별 유형을 분류하였다. 연구 결과, 연구 지역의 벤토나이트는 현무암질 암석이 열수 유체로부터 알칼리 성분들이 제거되는 이질화작용을 받아 생성되었으며, 이는 AI-CCPI 변질지수에서도 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 산지별 벤토나이트의 열수 변질과 중금속 원소(Pb, Cr, As)의 거동 특성과에는 상관관계가 있음을 알 수 있었다.

주요어 벤토나이트, 광물성 약재, 풍화작용, 열수변질작용, 중금속 원소

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(3): 229-238

Published online June 30, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.3.229

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Behavior of Heavy Metals Studies on the Hydrothermal Alteration Characteristics of Bentonite; Use as Medicinal Mineral

Seon-ok Kim, Sookyun Wang*

Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:*sookyun@pknu.ac.kr

Received: February 13, 2023; Revised: June 6, 2023; Accepted: June 6, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bentonite is a type of rock that has been used as a traditional mineral medicine. It has a variety of pharmacological activities, and is used in traditional Korean medicine to treat jaundice, diarrhea, and hemostasis. In modern medicine, it is used as a raw material and additive for medicines such as antacids, gastrointestinal protective agents, and laxatives.
Bentonite produced in Korea was produced through diagenesis or hydrothermal alteration of tertiary volcanic debris distributed in the Pohang and Gyeongju areas. It is mainly used for industrial purposes such as papermaking, paint, civil engineering, casting, and animal feed. Recently, technology is being developed to use it in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In this study, the geochemical characteristics of bentonite were identified by analyzing the main components and trace elements of 40 and 21 types of bentonite produced in the Gampo Gyeongju and Yeonil Pohang area. Also it were classifed by formation envrionment of bentonite deposits in the Gampo and Yeonil. As a result of the study, bentonite from the reserch area may be cased by argillic alteraton that alkali elements are removed form basaltic rocks by hydrothermal fluids and AI-CCPI alteration indices wrere also indentified argillic alteraton. It was found that there is a correlation between the behavior characteristics of heavy metal elements (Pb, Cr, As) and the hydrothermal alteration of bentonite in the reserch area.

Keywords bentonite, mineral medicine, weathering, hydrothermal alteration, heavy metal

벤토나이트의 열수변질특성에 따른 중금속의 거동 특성 : 광물성 약재로의 활용

김선옥 · 왕수균*

부경대학교 에너지자원공학과

Received: February 13, 2023; Revised: June 6, 2023; Accepted: June 6, 2023

요 약

전통적인 광물성 약재로서 활용되어온 석지의 한 종류인 벤토나이트는 다양한 약리 활성을 가지고 있어 한의학에서는 황달, 설사, 지혈 등의 치료제로 쓰이며, 현대 의학에서는 제산제, 위장관보호제, 지사제 등의 의약품 원료 및 의약품 첨가제로 활용하고 있다. 국내에서 생산되는 벤토나이트는 포항, 경주 일대에 분포하는 제3기 화산쇄설물이 속성작용 또는 열수변질작용을 받아 생성되었다. 주로 제지용, 페인트용, 토목용, 주물용, 동물사료용 등의 산업적 용도로 사용하고 있으며, 최근 화장품 및 의약품으로 활용하기 위해 기술을 개발하고 있다. 이 연구에서는 경주 감포 지역과 포항 영일 지역에서 산출되는 벤토나이트 40종와 21종을 대상으로 주성분, 미량원소 분석을 실시하여, 산지별 벤토나이트의 지구화학적 특성을 파악하였고, 포항, 경주 일대에 분포하는 벤토나이트 광상의 생성환경별 유형을 분류하였다. 연구 결과, 연구 지역의 벤토나이트는 현무암질 암석이 열수 유체로부터 알칼리 성분들이 제거되는 이질화작용을 받아 생성되었으며, 이는 AI-CCPI 변질지수에서도 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 산지별 벤토나이트의 열수 변질과 중금속 원소(Pb, Cr, As)의 거동 특성과에는 상관관계가 있음을 알 수 있었다.

주요어 벤토나이트, 광물성 약재, 풍화작용, 열수변질작용, 중금속 원소

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Triangular CaO–Na2O–K2O plot of 61 samples of bentonite from the reserch area and 10 samples of basaltic rock from Yeonil area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 229-238https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.3.229

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Binary diagrams of heavy metal (a) Pb, (b) As and (c) Cr concentrations (ppm) against Al2O3/SiO2 ratio of the investigated sample from the reserch area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 229-238https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.3.229

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Diagrams displaying 61 samples of bentonite from the reserch area and 10 samples of basaltic rock from Yeonil area. (a) Binary diagram displaying the main chemical differences between Gampo and Yeonil; and (b) alteration box plot with argillic alteration trends.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 229-238https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.3.229

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Binary diagrams of (a) Na2O vs. CaO and (b) CaO+ Na2O vs K2O of the investigated sample from the reserch area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 229-238https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.3.229

    Table 1 . Major element compositions of bentonites from the reserch area and basaltic rock from Yeonil area (unit of %).

    AreaSample NoSiO2TiO2Al2O3Fe2O3*MnOMgOCaONa2OK2OP2O5LOITotal
    Gampo - bentoniteG-151.840.3414.473.390.094.191.400.410.760.2322.0999.21
    G-249.160.2714.443.580.074.251.15N.D0.550.0725.1799.21
    G-249.160.2714.443.580.074.251.15N.D0.550.0725.1798.71
    G-354.030.0814.801.610.053.891.720.26N.D0.0322.4998.96
    G-452.220.0814.741.670.053.891.730.00N.D0.0224.3998.79
    G-552.390.0715.021.630.064.011.500.23N.D0.0224.5099.43
    G-651.770.0914.941.850.053.811.660.190.030.0224.5798.98
    G-752.400.2213.442.790.064.591.611.140.180.0823.50100.01
    G-852.260.2613.312.870.054.611.720.840.240.1123.1899.45
    G-948.020.2113.143.380.054.604.090.200.140.0725.9099.80
    G-1048.640.2513.363.550.056.501.65N.D0.190.0724.9599.21
    G-1147.450.1813.133.510.057.141.520.220.130.0426.3699.73
    G-1254.540.2313.893.190.064.960.003.390.100.1018.7999.25
    G-1359.810.3913.792.190.043.241.441.620.500.0916.4399.54
    G-1457.740.4314.017.440.053.822.051.590.590.1911.8999.80
    G-1563.420.2513.031.910.052.391.512.010.430.0814.8399.91
    G-1661.140.2812.262.150.062.711.091.310.230.0918.1299.44
    G-1746.340.1812.692.170.043.649.300.480.040.0625.37100.31
    G-1856.700.1815.592.190.063.631.981.970.670.0516.5099.52
    G-1960.340.0913.001.130.053.111.560.610.240.0619.5999.78
    G-2055.350.1014.331.470.063.891.830.370.100.0321.4298.95
    G-2165.070.0311.411.050.033.051.000.210.020.0117.9199.79
    G-2257.830.0713.601.410.033.791.410.190.030.0220.4698.84
    G-2356.220.0613.221.260.053.601.290.260.010.1023.1299.19
    G-2454.940.0814.381.570.064.211.430.20N.D0.0421.7098.61
    G-2550.950.3115.762.480.074.231.550.530.100.1122.7298.81
    G-2650.540.8218.664.980.042.391.190.811.190.1018.0498.76
    G-2748.660.6315.734.220.023.141.430.340.660.1123.2998.23
    G-2858.910.2916.082.370.072.502.042.350.650.1013.5498.90
    G-2956.860.3917.533.640.071.762.292.780.740.1312.5298.71
    G-3056.730.1715.911.990.063.272.262.900.540.1515.2599.23
    G-3155.390.3317.422.680.042.882.774.410.340.1613.0599.47
    G-3258.280.5718.423.810.041.624.435.140.470.316.8199.90
    G-3364.590.3116.882.560.071.441.995.231.160.116.07100.41
    G-3463.180.1915.301.620.051.911.823.160.620.0911.9299.86
    G-3565.150.1614.461.220.072.140.952.421.020.0712.70100.36
    G-3650.401.3917.249.440.112.818.263.410.790.536.49100.87
    G-3750.041.3616.2110.480.112.466.463.120.810.669.12100.83
    G-3864.790.1614.391.280.082.260.912.270.910.0613.15100.26
    G-3958.480.3315.992.460.072.662.072.320.580.1014.8099.86
    G-4055.260.4217.913.940.071.962.452.640.570.1614.0699.44
    Yeonil - bentoniteY-169.630.1714.441.150.090.830.513.012.810.057.41100.10
    Y-262.220.1814.521.480.272.440.611.540.410.0415.5899.29
    Y-357.960.1712.731.680.422.690.370.320.070.0922.3798.87
    Y-466.270.2215.081.830.081.010.592.882.440.078.7699.23
    Y-552.020.7117.074.930.261.980.951.160.410.0818.9798.54
    Y-648.890.4622.556.100.201.71N.D0.650.320.0818.7499.70
    Y-746.920.7514.566.260.073.760.350.250.080.1425.7298.86
    Y-861.180.4812.544.660.251.582.050.942.070.1613.3099.21
    Y-951.981.1014.837.030.113.522.741.283.020.3013.7599.66
    Y-1051.150.7717.195.510.021.960.490.311.290.0719.9298.68
    Y-1152.290.9617.645.080.021.820.590.641.910.0718.0899.10
    Y-1251.470.7316.606.580.032.210.490.231.340.0719.7099.45
    Y-1357.180.6417.434.690.031.941.581.271.030.0813.2899.15
    Y-1453.140.4715.936.430.031.750.970.610.220.1019.2798.92
    Y-1550.541.3918.006.750.041.661.651.071.030.2316.5598.91
    Y-1653.600.4616.366.320.041.760.990.660.270.0919.0099.55
    Y-1752.810.7717.395.110.021.820.680.791.580.0618.1299.15
    Y-1857.340.6517.074.690.041.911.571.271.030.1013.5199.18
    Y-1957.130.6517.474.710.031.991.561.291.040.0913.3599.31
    Y-2052.980.4716.056.510.031.790.930.430.200.0919.7899.26
    Y-2145.940.8015.2415.700.031.570.440.251.320.1119.07100.47
    Yeonil - basaltic rock**YB-155.120.9318.158.280.174.9510.152.730.730.230.8599.29
    YB-255.460.8817.777.440.153.997.783.051.090.240.5998.44
    YB-356.410.9717.77.760.223.337.093.261.490.230.598.96
    YB-455.890.8917.847.60.173.987.72.851.170.270.6198.97
    YB-556.140.8717.757.650.153.97.472.951.340.240.3498.8
    YB-656.10.8818.047.670.184.017.72.930.850.260.8199.43
    YB-751.661.3916.879.730.185.489.33.160.620.30.3399.02
    YB-852.221.1918.868.040.24.059.153.010.540.420.5998.27
    YB-950.361.518.438.580.194.179.442.850.70.330.7298.37
    YB-1046.521.6118.219.950.174.659.742.940.680.370.598.34

    *Total iron as Fe2O3 , N.D.; not detected, LOI; Loss on ignition.

    **Refs. Shim et al., 2011.


    Table 2 . Trace element compositions of bentonites from the reserch area (unit of ppm).

    AreaSample No.MoCdPbCoAsCrVNiCuSe
    Gampo - bentoniteG-10.701.0715.7032.1016.303.3818.1012.8014.900.18
    G-20.641.015.3931.2015.402.8116.3013.6014.400.16
    G-30.780.7434.804.3316.306.2420.2014.8014.700.45
    G-40.620.4725.605.9320.406.7423.3013.2012.900.29
    G-50.860.5836.804.2519.906.7520.4018.4014.000.13
    G-60.660.6321.907.4917.105.7620.0013.4014.500.09
    G-70.801.3221.4015.1017.105.2917.2011.9010.900.04
    G-80.811.5811.9016.9020.705.9617.5013.0010.800.13
    G-90.361.4420.3041.9020.509.6614.308.490.1720.20
    G-100.531.3518.1041.6017.909.4513.607.300.0122.20
    G-110.441.5719.3042.0022.909.6414.508.460.0119.10
    G-120.381.6817.6015.2016.804.6215.5011.500.2723.70
    G-130.801.3918.4051.4019.305.1917.2015.0012.001.93
    G-140.761.5084.90153.0032.5027.8022.3015.3015.500.80
    G-150.451.066.8011.8016.201.2417.2012.4013.700.87
    G-160.851.5112.1016.3019.502.2016.2011.3013.000.79
    G-170.081.1818.2020.8015.702.7712.203.970.2219.90
    G-180.850.86138.009.4316.902.2416.5014.3013.800.96
    G-190.850.7414.206.7517.401.6117.5011.4014.301.58
    G-200.420.9023.105.3017.302.4712.705.340.0120.30
    G-210.400.6135.908.9915.505.2114.607.040.1221.40
    G-220.640.6930.706.5521.403.8114.506.780.2221.90
    G-230.790.5131.306.3814.503.7918.4014.7012.900.51
    G-240.250.6335.606.6419.305.0815.0018.600.6317.90
    G-250.911.7433.5056.4015.8013.0018.9017.6014.200.39
    G-261.271.34114.00181.0034.4012.5022.2027.9015.500.80
    G-271.001.3226.10294.0029.7011.8021.2019.6014.800.63
    G-280.691.1916.4013.4017.303.9717.3016.0015.101.01
    G-290.931.5120.7017.9016.902.5017.1014.1015.000.99
    G-300.570.73126.008.7324.502.5422.4018.2018.700.57
    G-310.501.4246.4014.6021.005.4119.7012.1019.200.12
    G-320.491.2414.6026.3023.104.3020.5011.9019.000.35
    G-330.591.3018.607.2821.002.8519.0010.6017.400.12
    G-340.470.7515.7013.1022.501.4417.9010.608.720.61
    G-350.490.3916.607.9223.702.3419.5011.3016.000.39
    G-360.751.2330.30180.00182.0011.1037.5012.3014.400.17
    G-370.571.2525.00142.00208.0011.0037.7013.0015.900.17
    G-380.500.4332.508.0025.003.1220.5012.4017.200.12
    G-390.431.0612.9013.0024.405.1518.7015.8016.800.12
    G-400.721.4117.3018.3021.302.8416.5015.3015.300.21
    Yeonil - bentoniteY-11.340.8510.605.5823.300.5816.6011.0014.400.59
    Y-20.640.85<0.55.9816.200.9119.6011.2013.600.96
    Y-30.670.6836.206.5427.401.3024.2013.1015.900.12
    Y-41.070.6310.506.9122.800.8820.2011.1018.300.54
    Y-51.031.9616.7088.5028.708.4523.1023.1015.200.67
    Y-60.190.02<0.51.3622.200.2919.8010.4016.300.42
    Y-71.622.9327.5046.0025.5011.4022.102.4718.000.11
    Y-83.561.5728.10132.0073.5014.4042.3030.0013.900.67
    Y-90.691.2912.40170.0027.8014.0020.0022.8010.300.21
    Y-101.001.7227.7078.8027.9011.3020.9020.7016.200.59
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    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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