Research Paper

Split Viewer

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 155-166

Published online April 30, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Study on Evaluation of Critical Minerals for the Development of Korea's Materials-parts Industry

Yujeong Kim*, Sunjin Lee

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

Correspondence to : *kyj@kigam.re.kr

Received: March 8, 2023; Revised: April 7, 2023; Accepted: April 8, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Through COVID-19, the importance of supply chain management of raw material minerals has been maximized. In particular, supply chain management is important for rare metals, which are difficult to manage demand and supply, in order to secure raw materials for the parts and materials industry that Korea is actively promoting. In this study, a system was established and evaluated to select Critical minerals that need to respond to Korea's industrial structure and global risks by quantifying tangible and intangible risk factors. Global Supply Concentration, Supplying country risk, Policy Social Environment Regulation, Domestic Import Instability, Risk responsiveness, Market Scale, Demand Fluctuation and Economic Importance were evaluated as evaluation indicators. The degree of risk and risk impact were quantitatively measured using the criticality matrix-criticality level. After evaluating 40 types of minerals used in domestic new growth businesses, 15 types of Critical minerals(Li, Pt, Co, V, REE, Mg, Mo, Cr, Ti, W, C, Ni, Al, Mn, Si) in Korea were selected. The results a re ex pected to be u sed to establish policies to strengthen resource security and to make decisions to form a company's raw material portfolio.

Keywords critical minerals, criticality evaluation, supply chain, minerals security, materials-parts industry

한국의 소재부품산업 육성을 위한 핵심광물 선정 연구

김유정* · 이선진

한국지질자원연구원

요 약

COVID-19를 겪으면서 광물자원의 공급망 관리 중요성이 극대화되었다. 특히 수요 및 공급 관리가 어려운 광물자원은 우리나라가 적극적으로 추진하고 있는 소재부품산업의 원료확보 차원에서 공급망 관리가 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 광종별로 글로벌 공급위험과 공급위험 발생시 국내 경제적 영향의 유·무형 요인을 정량화하고 위험상태 행렬(criticality matrix–criticality level)을 이용하는 핵심광물을 선정하는 체계를 수립하고 평가를 수행하였다. 독과점성, 생산국가 불안정성, 사회환경정책 규제성, 수입 불안정성, 리스크 대응력, 시장규모, 시장 확장성, 경제적 중요성 등을 평가항목으로 하였다. 국내 신성장 사업에 활용되는 40여종의 광물을 평가하여 15종(Li, Pt, Co, V, REE, Mg, Mo, Cr, Ti, W, C, Ni, Al, Mn, Si)을 핵심광물로 선정하였다. 해당 결과는 자원안보 강화를 위한 정책 수립과 기업의 원료 포트폴리오 구성을 위한 의사결정 등에 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.

주요어 핵심광물, 위험도평가, 공급망, 자원안보, 소재부품산업

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 155-166

Published online April 30, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Study on Evaluation of Critical Minerals for the Development of Korea's Materials-parts Industry

Yujeong Kim*, Sunjin Lee

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

Correspondence to:*kyj@kigam.re.kr

Received: March 8, 2023; Revised: April 7, 2023; Accepted: April 8, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Through COVID-19, the importance of supply chain management of raw material minerals has been maximized. In particular, supply chain management is important for rare metals, which are difficult to manage demand and supply, in order to secure raw materials for the parts and materials industry that Korea is actively promoting. In this study, a system was established and evaluated to select Critical minerals that need to respond to Korea's industrial structure and global risks by quantifying tangible and intangible risk factors. Global Supply Concentration, Supplying country risk, Policy Social Environment Regulation, Domestic Import Instability, Risk responsiveness, Market Scale, Demand Fluctuation and Economic Importance were evaluated as evaluation indicators. The degree of risk and risk impact were quantitatively measured using the criticality matrix-criticality level. After evaluating 40 types of minerals used in domestic new growth businesses, 15 types of Critical minerals(Li, Pt, Co, V, REE, Mg, Mo, Cr, Ti, W, C, Ni, Al, Mn, Si) in Korea were selected. The results a re ex pected to be u sed to establish policies to strengthen resource security and to make decisions to form a company's raw material portfolio.

Keywords critical minerals, criticality evaluation, supply chain, minerals security, materials-parts industry

한국의 소재부품산업 육성을 위한 핵심광물 선정 연구

김유정* · 이선진

한국지질자원연구원

Received: March 8, 2023; Revised: April 7, 2023; Accepted: April 8, 2023

요 약

COVID-19를 겪으면서 광물자원의 공급망 관리 중요성이 극대화되었다. 특히 수요 및 공급 관리가 어려운 광물자원은 우리나라가 적극적으로 추진하고 있는 소재부품산업의 원료확보 차원에서 공급망 관리가 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 광종별로 글로벌 공급위험과 공급위험 발생시 국내 경제적 영향의 유·무형 요인을 정량화하고 위험상태 행렬(criticality matrix–criticality level)을 이용하는 핵심광물을 선정하는 체계를 수립하고 평가를 수행하였다. 독과점성, 생산국가 불안정성, 사회환경정책 규제성, 수입 불안정성, 리스크 대응력, 시장규모, 시장 확장성, 경제적 중요성 등을 평가항목으로 하였다. 국내 신성장 사업에 활용되는 40여종의 광물을 평가하여 15종(Li, Pt, Co, V, REE, Mg, Mo, Cr, Ti, W, C, Ni, Al, Mn, Si)을 핵심광물로 선정하였다. 해당 결과는 자원안보 강화를 위한 정책 수립과 기업의 원료 포트폴리오 구성을 위한 의사결정 등에 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.

주요어 핵심광물, 위험도평가, 공급망, 자원안보, 소재부품산업

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Structure of the indicators for Critical minerals evaluation in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Criticality level for evaluation on Critical Minerals in Korea.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.The share of the top three countries in production(left) and Share of the top three rich countries(right) by minerals.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Production country instability SWN1(P-SWN1) by minerals.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Domestic import instability SWN1(I-SWN1) by minerals.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Industrial economic importance index by Minerals.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Results of critical minerals in Korea, using criticality matrix.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 155-166https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.2.155

    Table 1 . Origin of Production by rare metals.

    Origin of Production of Rare MetalsRare Metals
    ① main productW, Ree, Ni, Cr, Mn, Sr, Sb, Zr, Li, B, Ba, Cs
    ② By product or Co-productCo, Ge, Re, Ga, Se, Te, Bi, In, Tl, Hf
    ①+②Mo, V, Nb, Ta, PGM, Ti, Be

    Table 2 . Indicators and scales for Criticality evaluation of rare metal in Korea.

    IndicatorEvaluation IndexFive Point Scale
    12345
    Global RiskGlobal Supply ConcentrationThe share of the top three production countriesA≤3030507090
    The share of the top three country in reservesA≤3030507090
    Supplying country riskPolitical instability of product countries *P-SWN IA<500500≤A<10001000≤A<15001500≤A<20002000≤A
    Policy Social Environment RegulationPolicy·social Regulation MineralsHazardousnessothersConflict Minerals, Responsible Mineralsresource nationalism policy minerals
    Prohibitednon-Prohibited
    Environmental Risk *A: Ore-CO2 *C: Ore-TMRA≤101050100500
    C≤7070100010000100000
    Domestic Import InstabilityImport country risk *I-SWN IA<2000A≤2000A<10001000≤A<20002000≤A
    Risk responsivenessSupply expansion ability : Origin of Productio + Recyclability(A)by-product + concentrateconcentrate 25≤Aconcentrate A<25by-product 25≤Aby-product A<25
    SubstitutabilityA≤0.30.30.50.70.9
    Economic ImpactsMarket Scale*Amount of annual import (thousand dollar)A≤1,0001,00020,000100,000200,000
    *Annual import volume (tonne)A≤1001001,00010,00050,000
    Demand Fluctuation*Domestic import increase rate (%)(2015~2019)A≤-10-1001025
    Economic ImportanceEconomic importance of the demand industry *Industrial Economic-Importance Index0≤A<10001000≤A<20002000≤A<50005000≤A<1000010000≤A

    Table 3 . Distribution of Risk Mitigation Index by Response to Supply Risk.

    RRS: Risk Response score1≤RRS<22≤RRS<33≤RRS<44≤RRS<5RRS=5
    Risk Mitigation Index (B)0.80.850.90.951

    Table 4 . Results of Supply Risk Assessment by Minerals.


    Table 5 . Results of Economic Impact Assessment by Minerals.


    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

    Stats or Metrics

    Share this article on

    • kakao talk
    • line

    Related articles in KSEEG

    Economic and Environmental Geology

    pISSN 1225-7281
    eISSN 2288-7962
    qr-code Download