Research Paper

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(1): 103-114

Published online February 28, 2023

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Evaluation of Physical Properties and Material Characterization for Structural Frame at the Stained Glass Windows to Gongju Jeil Church of the Registered Cultural Heritage in Korea

Bo Young Park, Hye Ri Yang, Chan Hee Lee*

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea

Correspondence to : *chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: January 26, 2023; Revised: February 22, 2023; Accepted: February 23, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Christian Museum of Gongju Jeil Church was first built in 1931 and was largely damaged during the Korean War, but the walls and chimneys have been preserved. This building has a high architectural values in that the chapel was reconstructed in 1956, and maintains its original form through repair of damaged parts rather than new construction. The stained glass windows were as installed in 1979 and has a great significance in the Dalle de Verre method using lump glass. However, some of the stained glass damaged partially, such as various cracks and splits, and vertical and horizontal cracks in the joint fillers of supporting the colored glass. As the structural materials of the stained glass window, an iron frame and cement mortar filled with it were used, and corrosion of iron, cracking of mortar and granular decomposition appear partially due to weathering. In the joint fillers, the content of Ca and S is very high, indicating that gypsum were used as admixtures, and the gypsums grow in a rhombohedral and forms a bundle, which is investigated to have undergone recrystallization. As a result of modeling the ultrasonic velocity at the joint fillers, the left and right windows at the entrance show relatively weak in the range of 800 to 1,600m/s, and the lower right corner of the altar window and the upper left corner of the center window were also 1,000 to 1,800m/s, showing relatively low physical properties. And gypsums produced during the neutralization of lime mortar were detected in the joint fillers and contaminants on the surface. Such salts may cause damage to the joint material due to freezing and thawing, so appropriate preventive conservation is required. Also, since various damage types are complexly appearing in stained glass window and joint filler, customized conservation treatment should be reviewed through clinical tests.

Keywords stained glass window, joint filler, cement mortar, ultrasonic velocity, preventive conservation

국가등록문화재 공주제일교회 스테인드글라스 구조재의 재질특성과 물성 평가

박보영 · 양혜리 · 이찬희*

국립공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

요 약

공주제일교회 기독교박물관은 1931년에 초축되었으며 한국전쟁으로 상당 부분 파손되었으나 벽체와 굴뚝 등이 보존되었다. 이 건물은 1956년 예배당을 재건하며 신축이 아닌 파손된 부분의 보수를 통해 원형을 유지하고 있다는 점에서 건축학적으로 높은 가치가 있다. 스테인드글라스는 1979년에 설치하였으며, 덩어리유리를 사용하는 달드베르(Dalle de Verre) 방식으로 큰 의미가 있다. 그러나 일부 스테인드글라스에서는 다양한 균열과 쪼개짐이 나타나고 색유리를 지지하는 줄눈에는 수직 및 수평균열이 확인되는 등 부분적인 손상을 입었다. 스테인드글라스의 구조재로는 철제 틀과 이를 충전한 시멘트 모르타르가 사용되었으며, 부분적으로 풍화작용에 따라 철제의 부식과 모르타르의 균열 및 입상분해가 나타난다. 줄눈재에서는 Ca과 S의 함량이 높아 석고를 혼화재로 사용하였음을 지시하며, 석고는 능형으로 성장하며 다발모양을 이루고 있는 것으로 보아 재결정작용을 거친 것으로 판단된다. 줄눈재의 초음파속도 모델링 결과, 입구 좌우창의 속도는 800~1,600㎧ 범위로 상대적으로 취약하며, 제단의 좌창 우측 하단과 중앙창 좌측 상단도 1,000~1,800㎧로 나타나 상대적으로 낮은 물성을 보였다. 또한 줄눈재와 표면오염물에서는 석회 모르타르의 중성화에서 생성되는 석고화합물이 검출되었다. 이와 같은 염류는 동결 및 융해작용에 따라 줄눈재의 손상을 일으킬 수 있어 적절한 예방보존이 필요하다. 스테인드글라스와 줄눈재에는 다양한 손상유형이 복합적으로 나타나고 있어 임상실험을 통해 맞춤형 보존처리를 검토해야 할 것이다.

주요어 스테인드글라스, 줄눈재, 시멘트 모르타르, 초음파속도, 예방보존

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(1): 103-114

Published online February 28, 2023 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Evaluation of Physical Properties and Material Characterization for Structural Frame at the Stained Glass Windows to Gongju Jeil Church of the Registered Cultural Heritage in Korea

Bo Young Park, Hye Ri Yang, Chan Hee Lee*

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea

Correspondence to:*chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: January 26, 2023; Revised: February 22, 2023; Accepted: February 23, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Christian Museum of Gongju Jeil Church was first built in 1931 and was largely damaged during the Korean War, but the walls and chimneys have been preserved. This building has a high architectural values in that the chapel was reconstructed in 1956, and maintains its original form through repair of damaged parts rather than new construction. The stained glass windows were as installed in 1979 and has a great significance in the Dalle de Verre method using lump glass. However, some of the stained glass damaged partially, such as various cracks and splits, and vertical and horizontal cracks in the joint fillers of supporting the colored glass. As the structural materials of the stained glass window, an iron frame and cement mortar filled with it were used, and corrosion of iron, cracking of mortar and granular decomposition appear partially due to weathering. In the joint fillers, the content of Ca and S is very high, indicating that gypsum were used as admixtures, and the gypsums grow in a rhombohedral and forms a bundle, which is investigated to have undergone recrystallization. As a result of modeling the ultrasonic velocity at the joint fillers, the left and right windows at the entrance show relatively weak in the range of 800 to 1,600m/s, and the lower right corner of the altar window and the upper left corner of the center window were also 1,000 to 1,800m/s, showing relatively low physical properties. And gypsums produced during the neutralization of lime mortar were detected in the joint fillers and contaminants on the surface. Such salts may cause damage to the joint material due to freezing and thawing, so appropriate preventive conservation is required. Also, since various damage types are complexly appearing in stained glass window and joint filler, customized conservation treatment should be reviewed through clinical tests.

Keywords stained glass window, joint filler, cement mortar, ultrasonic velocity, preventive conservation

국가등록문화재 공주제일교회 스테인드글라스 구조재의 재질특성과 물성 평가

박보영 · 양혜리 · 이찬희*

국립공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

Received: January 26, 2023; Revised: February 22, 2023; Accepted: February 23, 2023

요 약

공주제일교회 기독교박물관은 1931년에 초축되었으며 한국전쟁으로 상당 부분 파손되었으나 벽체와 굴뚝 등이 보존되었다. 이 건물은 1956년 예배당을 재건하며 신축이 아닌 파손된 부분의 보수를 통해 원형을 유지하고 있다는 점에서 건축학적으로 높은 가치가 있다. 스테인드글라스는 1979년에 설치하였으며, 덩어리유리를 사용하는 달드베르(Dalle de Verre) 방식으로 큰 의미가 있다. 그러나 일부 스테인드글라스에서는 다양한 균열과 쪼개짐이 나타나고 색유리를 지지하는 줄눈에는 수직 및 수평균열이 확인되는 등 부분적인 손상을 입었다. 스테인드글라스의 구조재로는 철제 틀과 이를 충전한 시멘트 모르타르가 사용되었으며, 부분적으로 풍화작용에 따라 철제의 부식과 모르타르의 균열 및 입상분해가 나타난다. 줄눈재에서는 Ca과 S의 함량이 높아 석고를 혼화재로 사용하였음을 지시하며, 석고는 능형으로 성장하며 다발모양을 이루고 있는 것으로 보아 재결정작용을 거친 것으로 판단된다. 줄눈재의 초음파속도 모델링 결과, 입구 좌우창의 속도는 800~1,600㎧ 범위로 상대적으로 취약하며, 제단의 좌창 우측 하단과 중앙창 좌측 상단도 1,000~1,800㎧로 나타나 상대적으로 낮은 물성을 보였다. 또한 줄눈재와 표면오염물에서는 석회 모르타르의 중성화에서 생성되는 석고화합물이 검출되었다. 이와 같은 염류는 동결 및 융해작용에 따라 줄눈재의 손상을 일으킬 수 있어 적절한 예방보존이 필요하다. 스테인드글라스와 줄눈재에는 다양한 손상유형이 복합적으로 나타나고 있어 임상실험을 통해 맞춤형 보존처리를 검토해야 할 것이다.

주요어 스테인드글라스, 줄눈재, 시멘트 모르타르, 초음파속도, 예방보존

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.General views of Gongju Jeil Church. (A) External appearance of the church. (B) Interior chapel converted into the church museum. (C) Stained glass windows inside the chapel. (D) Stained glass windows to the left and right sides of the chapel entrance. (E) Outside view of the stained glass windows in the chapel. (F) Outside view of stained glass windows on the left and right sides to the entrance.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Conservation status of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. (A) Micro cracks. (B) Structural cracks. (C) Relatively wide cracks. (D, E) Chemical and physical weathered surface of the joint filler. (F) Internal iron frame exposed and rusted on the surface.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Analytical points using P-XRF of joint filler for the stained glass window on the left side of the entrance in Gongju Jeil Church.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Compositional variations showing the joint filler for the stained glass window on the left side of the entrance in Gongju Jeil Church. Analytical points are the same as those of Figure 3.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.X-ray diffraction analysis of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 2. Q; quartz, Ca; calcite, Do; dolomite, Px; pyroxene, M; mica, Ho; hornblende, Af; alkali feldspar.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Microphotographs using scanning electron microscope of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. Descriptions in each photographs are written in the text. Analytical points are the same as those of Table 3.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Survey maps showing the frontal view for ultrasonic velocity measurements of the structural frames to joint filler and the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. (A) Stained glass structures at the back side of the altar. (B) Stained glass structures on the left and right sides of the chapel entrance. Analytical point numbers are the same as those of Table 4.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Modelling maps showing the frontal view for ultrasonic velocity of the structural frames to joint filler and the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. (A) Stained glass structures at the back side of the altar. (B) Stained glass structures on the left and right sides of the chapel entrance. Summary data are the same as those of Table 5.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Representative damage statuses of structural frame and joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. (A) Exposure and rust in the stained glass window steel structure connected to the wall. (B) Iron frame exposed and rusted on the joint filler. (C) Efflorescence on the bricks of the stained glass window wall.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2023; 56: 103-114https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2023.56.1.103

    Table 1 . Chemical compositions (ppm) by P-XRF analysis of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. Analytical points are the same as those of Figure 4.

    Analytical PointsSiAlFeCaKS
    Joint FillerMT-1200,98929,4036,207300,2805,27331,193
    MT-2178,03446,0175,637321,1379,10214,510
    MT-3208,77740,7235,773264,98716,00630,190
    MT-4238,42944,8325,165223,9128,50726,141
    MT-5230,73716,4583,853267,57427,91413,430
    Iron FrameMP-1127,47425,770233,833191,81834,36417,057

    Table 2 . Samples of X-ray diffraction analysis of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church.

    No.MaterialsLocations
    JDL-3Joint fillerOutside of left window in entrance
    JDR-2Joint fillerInside of right window in entrance
    JDB-2Joint fillerInside of center window in altar
    JDGAggregatesInside of right window in altar

    Table 3 . Chemical compositions (wt.%) by SEM-EDS analysis of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church. Analytical points are the same as those of Figure 6.

    Analytical PointsSiO2Al2O3FeOMgOCaONa2OK2OSO4CCl
    Entrance Left Outside (JDL-3)120.973.291.071.0638.52-9.9117.148.04-
    219.392.68--38.43-11.0618.469.97-
    35.41---21.23-25.9747.38--
    48.66---40.16-20.3730.81--
    51.78--3.6561.14---33.44-
    Entrance Right Inside (JDR-2)618.103.390.992.1239.232.128.205.4717.562.68
    718.823.52-1.8458.021.185.585.963.131.92
    811.59-62.53-1.81-1.990.9721.09-
    99.212.0344.11-1.651.971.421.4238.15-
    Altar Center (JDB-2)102.611.36--29.210.9315.2850.58--
    11----79.96--20.03--
    Alar Right (JDG)1294.54---1.55---2.60-
    1392.32---4.08---3.59-
    1447.95---33.23--4.5214.29-

    Table 4 . Analytical positions and points by ultrasonic velocity of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church.

    Analytical PositionsEntranceAltar
    LeftRightLeftCenterRight
    Points7857180224224

    Table 5 . Summary on ultrasonic velocity of joint filler for the stained glass window in Gongju Jeil Church.

    LocationsUltrasonic Velocity (m/sec)
    MinMaxMean
    EntranceLeft9513,3332,507
    Right2022,7731,852
    AltarLeft1,4975,9382,795
    Center1,2694,8692,581
    Right1,1836,6672,543

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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