Research Paper

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022; 55(5): 447-463

Published online October 31, 2022

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Consideration of Procurement System and Material Homogeneity for Lime and Clay using the Tombs within the King Muryeong and the Royal Tombs in Gongju, Korea

Il Kyu Choi, Hye Ri Yang, Chan Hee Lee*

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, 32588, Korea

Correspondence to : *chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: September 16, 2022; Revised: October 8, 2022; Accepted: October 9, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The lime and clay that used in the construction of the Tomb of King Muryeong and the Royal Tombs in Gongju are auxiliary materials, and are used joint and plaster materials for the wall to play a role of structural support. In this study, the homogeneity between the tombs and material characteristics were interpreted through quantitative analysis of lime and clay. As a result of microtexture and composition analysis, almost the same minerals were identified in each sample groups, and similar characteristics were shown in thermal analysis. Geochemically, it is confirmed that the behavior characteristics are very similar regardless of the tombs. The compositions is also confirmed high homogeneity in the diagrams of CaO-MgO-SiO2, RO2-(RO+R2O) correlations, A-CN-K and ACNK-FM triangles. Therefore, it is interpreted that the clay used for the construction of the tomb complex was supplied from around area, and the raw materials of lime were produced using shell fragments of oyster family based on mainly composed of calcite. It is interpreted that the raw materials of lime were supplied from middens along the west coast of down the Geumgang river in Korean peninsula, but the consideration of the supply site, needs to be cross-validated through stable isotope analysis, use of carbonate rock and reproduction experiments.

Keywords lime and clay, material characteristics, chemical composition, shell fragments, stable isotope

공주 무령왕릉과 왕릉원 내부에 사용한 석회 및 점토의 재료학적 동질성과 조달체계 검토

최일규 · 양혜리 · 이찬희*

공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

요 약

공주 무령왕릉과 왕릉원의 축조에 사용한 석회와 점토는 부재료로서 벽체의 줄눈재와 미장재로 활용되어 구조적인 보조 역할을 수행하고 있다. 이 연구에서는 석회와 점토에 대한 정량분석을 통해 재료학적 특성과 고분 간의 동질성을 해석하였다. 석회와 점토에 대한 미세조직과 조성분석 결과, 그룹별로 모든 시료에서 거의 동일한 광물이 동정되었으며, 열분석에서도 유사한 열적 특성이 나타났다. 조성으로 볼 때, 고분에 관계없이 지구화학적 거동특성도 매우 유사하였다. 이들의 조성은 CaO-MgO-SiO2 성분계, RO2-(RO+R2O) 상관도, A-CN-K 및 A-CNK-FM 삼각도에서도 높은 동질성이 나타났다. 따라서 왕릉원 축조에 사용한 점토는 인근에서 수급한 것으로 해석되며, 석회의 원료물질은 주로 방해석으로 구성된 굴과의 패각을 활용한 것으로 판단된다. 석회의 원료는 금강 하류의 서해안 일대 패총에서 수급한 것으로 추정할 수 있으나, 공급지 검토는 안정동위원소 분석 및 탄산염암의 사용과 재현실험을 통해 검증할 필요가 있다.

주요어 석회와 점토, 재료학적 특성, 화학조성, 패각, 안정동위원소

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022; 55(5): 447-463

Published online October 31, 2022 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Consideration of Procurement System and Material Homogeneity for Lime and Clay using the Tombs within the King Muryeong and the Royal Tombs in Gongju, Korea

Il Kyu Choi, Hye Ri Yang, Chan Hee Lee*

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, 32588, Korea

Correspondence to:*chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: September 16, 2022; Revised: October 8, 2022; Accepted: October 9, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The lime and clay that used in the construction of the Tomb of King Muryeong and the Royal Tombs in Gongju are auxiliary materials, and are used joint and plaster materials for the wall to play a role of structural support. In this study, the homogeneity between the tombs and material characteristics were interpreted through quantitative analysis of lime and clay. As a result of microtexture and composition analysis, almost the same minerals were identified in each sample groups, and similar characteristics were shown in thermal analysis. Geochemically, it is confirmed that the behavior characteristics are very similar regardless of the tombs. The compositions is also confirmed high homogeneity in the diagrams of CaO-MgO-SiO2, RO2-(RO+R2O) correlations, A-CN-K and ACNK-FM triangles. Therefore, it is interpreted that the clay used for the construction of the tomb complex was supplied from around area, and the raw materials of lime were produced using shell fragments of oyster family based on mainly composed of calcite. It is interpreted that the raw materials of lime were supplied from middens along the west coast of down the Geumgang river in Korean peninsula, but the consideration of the supply site, needs to be cross-validated through stable isotope analysis, use of carbonate rock and reproduction experiments.

Keywords lime and clay, material characteristics, chemical composition, shell fragments, stable isotope

공주 무령왕릉과 왕릉원 내부에 사용한 석회 및 점토의 재료학적 동질성과 조달체계 검토

최일규 · 양혜리 · 이찬희*

공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

Received: September 16, 2022; Revised: October 8, 2022; Accepted: October 9, 2022

요 약

공주 무령왕릉과 왕릉원의 축조에 사용한 석회와 점토는 부재료로서 벽체의 줄눈재와 미장재로 활용되어 구조적인 보조 역할을 수행하고 있다. 이 연구에서는 석회와 점토에 대한 정량분석을 통해 재료학적 특성과 고분 간의 동질성을 해석하였다. 석회와 점토에 대한 미세조직과 조성분석 결과, 그룹별로 모든 시료에서 거의 동일한 광물이 동정되었으며, 열분석에서도 유사한 열적 특성이 나타났다. 조성으로 볼 때, 고분에 관계없이 지구화학적 거동특성도 매우 유사하였다. 이들의 조성은 CaO-MgO-SiO2 성분계, RO2-(RO+R2O) 상관도, A-CN-K 및 A-CNK-FM 삼각도에서도 높은 동질성이 나타났다. 따라서 왕릉원 축조에 사용한 점토는 인근에서 수급한 것으로 해석되며, 석회의 원료물질은 주로 방해석으로 구성된 굴과의 패각을 활용한 것으로 판단된다. 석회의 원료는 금강 하류의 서해안 일대 패총에서 수급한 것으로 추정할 수 있으나, 공급지 검토는 안정동위원소 분석 및 탄산염암의 사용과 재현실험을 통해 검증할 필요가 있다.

주요어 석회와 점토, 재료학적 특성, 화학조성, 패각, 안정동위원소

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Construction materials showing the western wall of tomb No. 5. from the Royal Tombs in Gongju.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Construction materials showing the western wall of tomb No. 6. from the Royal Tombs in Gongju.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Construction materials showing the western wall from tomb of King Muryeong in Gongju.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Representative samples of lime and clay in each burial chamber from the tomb complex. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Stereoscopic microphotographs of lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Estimated shell fragments of lime samples. (A to F) Samples from tomb of King Muryeong. (G, H) Samples from tomb No. 5 of Royal Tombs. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Representative polarizing microphotographs of lime and clay samples. PPL; plane polarized light, XPL; cross polarized light. Q; quartz, Ca; calcite, Bt; biotite, Ms; muscovite, Pl; plagioclase. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Diagrams showing the chromaticity of lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.X-ray diffraction patterns of lime and clay samples. Ca; calcite, Ar; aragonite, Ch; chlorite, Q; quartz, Pl; plagioclase, Af; alkali-feldspar, M; mica, Ho; hornblende, Sm; smectite. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Scanning electron microphotographs and analyzed spots of energy dispersive spectrum for lime and clay samples. (A, B) 5-NL. (C, D) 6-WL. (E, F) M-EL. (G, H) 5-TC. (I, J) 6-BC. (K, L) M-WC. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 11.

    Figure 11.Representative diagrams of DTA-TG patterns for lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 12.

    Figure 12.Diagrams showing the normalized major, trace, rare earth, compatible and incompatible element patterns of lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 13.

    Figure 13.Diagrams of CaO-MgO-SiO2 and RO2-(RO+R2O) for lime samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Fig 14.

    Figure 14.Diagrams of A-CN-K and A-CNK-FM for clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 447-463https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.5.447

    Table 1 . Analytical samples of lime and clay.

    TypeLocationSample No.Use
    LimeTomb No. 5Southern wall5-SLPlaster Material
    Northern wall5-NL
    Tomb No. 6Western wall6-WLJoint Material
    Aisle6-AL
    Tomb of King MuryeongBetween upper brickM-TL
    Eastern wallM-ELJoint Material
    Between floor brickM-FL
    ClayTomb No. 5Floor5-FCFloor Material
    Western wall5-WCJoint Material
    Western ceiling5-TCJoint Material
    Tomb No. 6Floor6-FCJoint Material
    Aisle6-BC
    Tomb of King MuryeongEastern wallM-EC
    Western wallM-WCJoint Material
    Southern wallM-SC

    Table 2 . Chromaticity of lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.

    MaterialsSample No.Chromaticity
    L*a*b*ΔE*
    Lime5-SL61.866.0418.3316.51
    5-NL74.685.8318.635.30
    6-WL82.513.4213.454.89
    6-AL77.242.5312.892.47
    M-TL87.741.7910.5510.99
    M-EL86.811.8612.099.58
    M-FL74.184.9118.585.31
    Clay5-FC60.614.5215.429.66
    5-WC53.9212.0720.593.13
    5-TC47.2417.1624.8211.51
    6-FC56.103.0014.0410.08
    6-BC53.749.8421.751.51
    M-EC48.088.2421.647.23
    M-WC59.7512.4532.1411.75
    M-SC62.198.3623.397.27

    Table 3 . Chemical compositions (wt.%) by SEM-EDS of lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.

    TypeTombsNo.SiO2Al2O3TiO2FeOCaOMgONa2OK2OC
    LimeNo. 516.645.96--87.40----
    211.53---88.47----
    No. 639.92--84.00-6.08
    4----88.101.77--10.13
    5----91.46---8.54
    King Muryeong639.777.50-5.3124.745.84--16.83
    73.41---76.91---19.68
    82.79---81.72---17.64
    92.33---80.02---15.48
    ClayNo. 51040.3427.22-12.52-6.33-3.619.98
    1144.3627.61-12.63-3.58-4.027.80
    1211.9412.15-65.71--5.55-4.65
    No. 61315.5444.541.0223.73-3.88--11.30
    1423.0944.67-15.74-2.64--13.86
    1519.5945.96-20.44-2.48--11.52
    1625.1743.88-13.79-1.37-1.0514.73
    1726.1243.79-11.78-1.42-1.4515.44
    1825.0142.910.8714.38-1.57-1.2813.98
    King Muryeong1931.1111.60-46.56-0.64--9.25
    2042.085.27-14.0716.9515.21--6.42
    2132.5323.77-30.07-2.372.471.906.89
    2229.3723.41-34.30-1.812.282.106.73
    2334.2716.99-36.75-0.66-2.828.51

    Table 4 . Compositions of major elements (wt.%), some trace and rare earth elements (ppm) for lime and clay samples. Sample numbers are the same as those of Table 1.

    No.LimeClay
    5-SL5-NL6-WL6-ALM-TLM-ELM-FL5-FC5-WC5-TC6-BC6-FCM-ECM-WCM-SC
    SiO211.1920.089.538.688.359.2623.6367.8852.7662.6561.0049.0360.4260.8660.61
    Al2O32.945.842.012.092.022.464.8013.9919.8914.0016.2512.3818.0317.8217.60
    Fe2O31.291.501.291.231.271.571.333.966.274.965.134.886.096.045.78
    MnO0.030.030.030.030.040.040.040.070.100.080.070.090.040.040.04
    MgO1.451.021.631.983.172.430.831.562.024.050.941.581.010.931.08
    CaO43.3637.5244.2545.0844.1544.5636.391.301.282.821.4511.910.390.360.66
    Na2O0.140.190.100.130.080.090.520.690.290.790.440.550.710.740.75
    K2O0.381.110.270.220.150.171.312.431.982.212.831.982.952.942.95
    TiO20.090.140.070.080.070.090.120.400.410.470.660.630.880.880.86
    P2O50.060.040.060.060.070.070.060.050.110.030.070.110.040.030.02
    LOI38.9333.2240.1240.7440.5839.731.657.7314.176.869.5017.158.348.268.29
    Total99.85100.7099.36100.3099.96100.40100.70100.1099.2798.9298.34100.3098.8998.8898.64
    Ba22039196927489335753532743539630621661655
    Be11<1<1<1<1<144332333
    Cd0.9<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<1.0<0.5<0.5<0.50.6<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5
    Co343<1348112417141391011
    Cr14201012810345271587499747576
    Cu439185419134053578885164217232262
    Hf<0.51.8<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.50.95.94.83.76.55.75.96.26.4
    Mo<2<2<2<2<2<2<4<2<2<2<2<2<2<2<2
    Ni784445122964343441282629
    Pb12813<5<558037251547462272730
    Rb<2030<20<20<20<20<2090120906080180120160
    Sc2.03.11.92.11.72.12.37.811.08.611.410.413.913.213.5
    Sr31313529235828330729974329357180737678
    Th3.27.82.12.42.02.35.817.530.116.019.813.819.017.418.1
    V11152217141317486455808810898100
    Y67876772226172023242324
    Zn152091010144081787384133837889
    Zr25442423171850200145136219196211202201
    La11.223.59.010.27.88.820.155.554.765.649.147.748.148.451.2
    Ce1536141413163072959010387888694
    Nd813<510<5<5113441383134322930
    Sm1.52.41.31.41.01.52.06.37.56.46.36.26.86.57.1
    Eu0.30.40.30.30.30.30.41.51.61.11.30.91.41.21.5
    Tb<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5
    Yb0.60.50.40.40.20.70.31.92.51.82.52.42.62.62.4
    Lu<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.050.190.220.160.210.160.290.250.31

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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