Research Paper

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022; 55(4): 317-338

Published online August 30, 2022

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Evaluation and Physicochemical Property for Building Materials from the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty

Seok Tae Park, Jeongeun Lee, Chan Hee Lee*

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, 32588, Korea

Correspondence to : *chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: August 6, 2022; Revised: August 18, 2022; Accepted: August 18, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Physicochemical characteristics and evaluation were studied by subdividing the concretes, bricks and earth pipes on the site of the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty, known as modern architecture, into three periods. Concretes showed similar specific gravity and absorption ratio, and large amounts of aggregates, quartz, feldspar, calcite and portlandite were detected. Porosity of the 1907 bricks were higher than those of 1910 and 1950 bricks. All earthen pipe is similar, but the earlier one was found to be more dense. Bricks and earthen pipes are dark red to brown in color within many cracks and pores, but the matrix of the earthen pipe is relatively homogeneous. Quartz, feldspar and hematite are detected in bricks, and mullite is confirmed with quartz and feldspar in earthen pipes, so it is interpreted that the materials have a firing temperature about 1,000 to 1,100oC. Concretes showed similar CaO content, but brick and earthen pipe had low SiO2 and high Al2O3 in the 1907 specimen. However, the materials have high genetic homogeneity based on similar geochemical behaviors. Ultrasonic velocity and rebound hardness of the concrete foundation differed due to the residual state, but indicated relatively weak physical properties. Converting the unconfined compressive strength, the 1st extended area had the highest mean values of 45.30 and 46.33 kgf/cm2, and the 2nd extended area showed the lowest mean values (20.05 and 24.76 kgf/cm2). In particular, the low CaO content and absorption ratio, the higher ultrasonic velocity and rebound hardness. It seems that the concrete used in the constructions of the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty had similar mixing characteristics and relatively constant specifications for each year. It is interpreted that the bricks and earthen pipes were through a similar manufacturing process using almost the same raw materials.

Keywords modern architecture, concrete, brick, earthen pipe, unconfined compressive strength

일제강점기 조선통감부 건축재료의 물리화학적 특성과 평가

박석태 · 이정은 · 이찬희*

공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

요 약

근대건축으로 알려진 조선통감부 자리의 콘크리트와 토관 및 벽돌을 대상으로 3시기로 세분하여 물리화학적 특성과 평가를 검토하였다. 콘크리트는 모두 비슷한 가비중과 흡수율을 보였으며 다량의 골재와 석영, 장석, 방해석 및 포틀란다이트가 검출되었다. 벽돌의 공극률은 1907년의 것이 1910년 및 1950년 벽돌보다 높았다. 토관도 유사하나 초기의 것이 보다 치밀한 것으로 나타났다. 벽돌과 토관은 암적색에서 암갈색을 띠며 많은 균열과 기공이 관찰되나, 상대적으로 토관의 기질이 균질하다. 벽돌에서는 석영, 장석 및 적철석이 검출되었으며, 토관에서는 석영 및 장석과 뮬라이트가 확인되는 것으로 보아, 모두 1,000~1,100℃의 소성온도를 거친 것으로 해석된다. 콘크리트는 유사한 CaO 함량을 보이나, 벽돌과 토관은 1907년 시료에서 SiO2는 낮고 Al2O3가 높다. 그러나 이들은 유사한 지구화학적 거동특성을 갖는 등 성인적 동질성이 높다. 콘크리트 기초의 초음파속도와 반발경도는 잔존상태에 따라 다르나 물성은 다소 낮았다. 이를 일축압축강도로 환산하면 1차 증축구역이 평균 45.30 및 46.33 kgf/cm2로 가장 높고, 2차 증축구역이 가장 낮은 평균치(20.05 및 24.76 kgf/cm2)를 보였다. 특히 CaO 함량과 흡수율이 작을수록 초음파속도와 반발경도가 높았다. 조선통감부 건축에 활용한 콘크리트는 시기별로 비슷한 배합특성과 비교적 일정한 규격이 있었던 것으로 보인다. 벽돌과 토관은 거의 동일한 점토질 원료를 사용하여 유사한 제작과정을 거친 것으로 해석된다.

주요어 근대건축, 콘크리트, 벽돌, 토관, 일축압축강도

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022; 55(4): 317-338

Published online August 30, 2022 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Evaluation and Physicochemical Property for Building Materials from the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty

Seok Tae Park, Jeongeun Lee, Chan Hee Lee*

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, 32588, Korea

Correspondence to:*chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: August 6, 2022; Revised: August 18, 2022; Accepted: August 18, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Physicochemical characteristics and evaluation were studied by subdividing the concretes, bricks and earth pipes on the site of the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty, known as modern architecture, into three periods. Concretes showed similar specific gravity and absorption ratio, and large amounts of aggregates, quartz, feldspar, calcite and portlandite were detected. Porosity of the 1907 bricks were higher than those of 1910 and 1950 bricks. All earthen pipe is similar, but the earlier one was found to be more dense. Bricks and earthen pipes are dark red to brown in color within many cracks and pores, but the matrix of the earthen pipe is relatively homogeneous. Quartz, feldspar and hematite are detected in bricks, and mullite is confirmed with quartz and feldspar in earthen pipes, so it is interpreted that the materials have a firing temperature about 1,000 to 1,100oC. Concretes showed similar CaO content, but brick and earthen pipe had low SiO2 and high Al2O3 in the 1907 specimen. However, the materials have high genetic homogeneity based on similar geochemical behaviors. Ultrasonic velocity and rebound hardness of the concrete foundation differed due to the residual state, but indicated relatively weak physical properties. Converting the unconfined compressive strength, the 1st extended area had the highest mean values of 45.30 and 46.33 kgf/cm2, and the 2nd extended area showed the lowest mean values (20.05 and 24.76 kgf/cm2). In particular, the low CaO content and absorption ratio, the higher ultrasonic velocity and rebound hardness. It seems that the concrete used in the constructions of the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty had similar mixing characteristics and relatively constant specifications for each year. It is interpreted that the bricks and earthen pipes were through a similar manufacturing process using almost the same raw materials.

Keywords modern architecture, concrete, brick, earthen pipe, unconfined compressive strength

일제강점기 조선통감부 건축재료의 물리화학적 특성과 평가

박석태 · 이정은 · 이찬희*

공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

Received: August 6, 2022; Revised: August 18, 2022; Accepted: August 18, 2022

요 약

근대건축으로 알려진 조선통감부 자리의 콘크리트와 토관 및 벽돌을 대상으로 3시기로 세분하여 물리화학적 특성과 평가를 검토하였다. 콘크리트는 모두 비슷한 가비중과 흡수율을 보였으며 다량의 골재와 석영, 장석, 방해석 및 포틀란다이트가 검출되었다. 벽돌의 공극률은 1907년의 것이 1910년 및 1950년 벽돌보다 높았다. 토관도 유사하나 초기의 것이 보다 치밀한 것으로 나타났다. 벽돌과 토관은 암적색에서 암갈색을 띠며 많은 균열과 기공이 관찰되나, 상대적으로 토관의 기질이 균질하다. 벽돌에서는 석영, 장석 및 적철석이 검출되었으며, 토관에서는 석영 및 장석과 뮬라이트가 확인되는 것으로 보아, 모두 1,000~1,100℃의 소성온도를 거친 것으로 해석된다. 콘크리트는 유사한 CaO 함량을 보이나, 벽돌과 토관은 1907년 시료에서 SiO2는 낮고 Al2O3가 높다. 그러나 이들은 유사한 지구화학적 거동특성을 갖는 등 성인적 동질성이 높다. 콘크리트 기초의 초음파속도와 반발경도는 잔존상태에 따라 다르나 물성은 다소 낮았다. 이를 일축압축강도로 환산하면 1차 증축구역이 평균 45.30 및 46.33 kgf/cm2로 가장 높고, 2차 증축구역이 가장 낮은 평균치(20.05 및 24.76 kgf/cm2)를 보였다. 특히 CaO 함량과 흡수율이 작을수록 초음파속도와 반발경도가 높았다. 조선통감부 건축에 활용한 콘크리트는 시기별로 비슷한 배합특성과 비교적 일정한 규격이 있었던 것으로 보인다. 벽돌과 토관은 거의 동일한 점토질 원료를 사용하여 유사한 제작과정을 거친 것으로 해석된다.

주요어 근대건축, 콘크리트, 벽돌, 토관, 일축압축강도

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Photographs showing the location and excavation sites from the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty. (A) Location of the study area. (B) General view of excavation site. (C, D) Building sites of the 1st and 2nd extended constructions.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Photographs showing the first building site in 1907 year (A), and the 1st extended building site of 1910 year (B) of the Japanese Ministry of General Affairs in Joseon Dynasty.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Sampling locations and zones in the excavation area from the study site.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Representative photographs of the samples from the study site. (A to C) Concretes from 1907, 1910 and 1913 years, respectively. (D to F) Bricks from 1907, 1910 and 1950 years, respectively. (G, H) Earthen pipes from 1907 and 1910 years. (I) Internal texture showing the cross section of earthen pipe in 1950 year.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Diagram showing the chromaticity of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Diagram showing the absorption ratio versus porosity and specific gravity of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Representative microphotographs showing the internal textures of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5. (A) Stereoscopic image of 1907 year concrete. (B, C) Polarizing microscopic images of 1907 and 1910 year concretes. (D) Stereoscopic image of 1907 year brick. (E, F) Polarizing microscopic images of 1907 and 1950 year bricks. (G) Stereoscopic image of 1907 year earthen pipe. (H, I) Polarizing microscopic images of 1907 and 1910 year earthen pipes.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Scanning electron microphotographs and energy dispersive spectra of analyzed materials. (A) Calcite and quartz aggregates of 1907 year concrete, (B, C) Fibrous and needle shape portlandite of 1910 and 1913 years concrete. (D) Altered mica in 1907 year brick. (E, F) Vitrified matrix and metamorphosed mica within earthen pipes of 1907 and 1950 years. Numbers are the same as in those of Table 4.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Representative X-ray powder diffraction patterns of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5. Q; quartz, Po; portlandite, Ca; calcite, P; plagioclase, K; K-feldspar, He; hematite, Mu; mullite.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Representative DTA and TG patterns of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 11.

    Figure 11.Normalized geochemical variation patterns of major (A), rare earth (B), and compatible and incompatible (C) elements of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 12.

    Figure 12.Maps showing the 2D modelling of ultrasonic velocity in the study site. (A) F and A zones of construction area in 1907 and 1910 years. (B) N and R zones of construction area in 1913 year.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 13.

    Figure 13.Maps showing the 2D modelling of rebound hardness in the study site. (A) F and A zones of construction area in 1907 and 1910 years. (B) N and R zones of construction area in 1913 year.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 14.

    Figure 14.Plotted on diagrams showing the A-CN-K and A-CNKFM of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Fig 15.

    Figure 15.Plotted on diagrams showing the Al2O3/SiO2 versus Fe2O3/SiO2 and RO2 versus and RO+R2O of analyzed materials. Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1 and Figure 5.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 317-338https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.4.317

    Table 1 . Sample name and type of foundation materials by building years from the study site.

    Sampling SiteSample NameTypeMunsell Color
    1st Building SiteFC-01(1907)Concrete2.5Y 7/1light gray (surface)
    BR-11(1907)Brick2.5YR 4/6red (cross section)
    EP-11(1907)Earthen Pipe5YR 2.5/1black (surface)
    2.5YR 4/6red (cross section)
    1st Extended Building SiteSC-01(1910)Concrete2.5Y 7/1light gray (surface)
    BR-21(1910)Brick2.5YR 4/6red (cross section)
    EP-21(1910)Earthen Pipe5YR 3/1dark gray (cross section)
    2.5YR 4/6red (cross section)
    2nd Extended Building SiteTC-01(1913)Concrete2.5Y 7/1light gray (surface)
    BR-31(1950)Brick2.5YR 4/6red (surface)
    EP-31(1950)Earthen Pipe5YR 2.5/1black (surface)
    2.5YR 4/6red (cross section)

    Table 2 . Chromaticity of foundation materials by building years from the study site.

    Sample TypeSample NameL*a*b*ΔE*
    ConcreteFC-01(1907)72.481.977.942.91
    SC-01(1910)81.100.905.736.12
    TC-01(1913)71.691.116.803.41
    BrickBR-11(1907)56.5411.4316.794.76
    BR-21(1910)45.9718.8321.348.95
    BR-31(1950)56.8012.2517.724.26
    Earthen Pipe (surface)EP-11(1907)33.721.302.698.32
    EP-21(1910)44.012.768.835.04
    EP-31(1950)39.818.2013.416.58
    Earthen Pipe (cross section)EP-11(1907)46.5316.6515.057.65
    EP-21(1910)55.2717.6223.105.52
    EP-31(1950)49.9824.2824.435.98

    Table 3 . Magnetic susceptibility (×10-3 SI unit) and basic physical property for foundation materials by building years from the study site.

    Sample NameMagnetic SusceptibilitySpecific gravityAbsorption ratio (%)Porosity (%)
    minmaxmean
    ConcreteFC-01(1907)0.120.990.491.7610.0017.59
    SC-01(1910)0.070.480.201.8922.4442.48
    TC-01(1913)0.130.280.191.7111.6519.89
    Average0.110.580.291.8316.2230.04
    BrickBR-11(1907)1.026.263.371.5526.3040.76
    BR-21(1910)0.040.940.401.6316.1326.23
    BR-31(1950)0.170.060.361.5518.9929.48
    Average0.412.421.381.5819.5532.34
    Earthen PipeEP-11(1907)0.270.890.631.6011.4518.29
    EP-21(1910)0.251.040.541.6317.1828.04
    EP-31(1950)0.211.160.651.6516.2826.87
    Average0.241.030.611.6016.0626.22

    Table 4 . Composition of SEM-EDS analysis (wt.%) for foundation materials by building years from the study site.

    SamplesPointSiAlFeCaMgNaKSCO
    Concrete123.641.97-10.51----3.1460.74
    24.654.22-18.011.09--1.2930.8439.90
    32.037.78-20.190.89--3.7813.3851.95
    4-4.45-24.20---7.871.1262.36
    Brick520.089.652.151.051.350.831.66-2.8060.43
    615.3712.504.36-3.35-0.87-5.9257.63
    Earthen Pipe718.619.483.920.901.570.601.56-4.4558.91
    816.3014.371.21-1.650.641.47-6.2858.08
    916.986.19--11.68---10.2354.92

    Analytical points are the same as in those of Figure 8..


    Table 5 . Weight loss by differential thermal and thermal gravity analysis for foundation materials by building years from the study site.

    Sample NameWeight loss (wt.%)Sample NameWeight loss (wt.%)Sample NameWeight loss (wt.%)
    FC-01(1907)11.00BR-11(1907)1.27EP-11(1907)0.61
    SC-01(1910)8.10BR-21(1910)1.11EP-21(1910)1.13
    TC-01(1913)8.01BR-31(1950)0.93EP-31(1950)0.47

    Table 6 . Composition of major (wt.%), some minor and rare earth (ppm) elements for foundation materials by building years from the study site.

    FC-01TC-01SC-01BR-11BR-21BR-31EP-11EP-21EP-31
    SiO260.6368.6664.0261.8568.4769.1169.0567.9869.11
    Al2O38.318.878.7219.5717.0717.6317.4520.6017.60
    Fe2O31.341.501.617.866.366.446.373.326.04
    MnO0.030.030.040.160.070.100.180.030.08
    CaO12.238.4610.271.000.410.300.440.400.60
    MgO1.710.901.152.011.331.471.270.401.31
    Na2O1.081.070.990.480.390.440.550.990.93
    K2O2.282.922.492.872.492.582.473.302.80
    TiO20.180.210.230.930.880.970.830.520.88
    P2O50.040.050.050.160.070.100.090.030.14
    LOI10.517.979.981.601.000.810.531.130.93
    Total98.34100.6499.5598.4998.5499.9599.2398.70100.42
    Ba532653623887709601823306733
    Be212333344
    Cd0.50.50.50.50.50.50.50.50.5
    Co28421171924720
    Cr2633391421171191163795
    Cu93312514531392228
    Hf2.02.73.84.85.96.86.48.17.6
    Ni698665045491139
    Pb171818353230364745
    Rb130110110120170160180180180
    Sc3.13.83.716.313.517.218.311.416.7
    Sr16214915285677310345116
    V1824221099711511353104
    Y0.91.01.32.82.53.83.45.73.8
    Zn222625118949410185116
    Zr7190145194235272237202276
    La16.019.119.367.154.752.964.938.257.3
    Ce2333371089510212381117
    Nd101915496146894138
    Sm2.12.52.48.37.37.38.96.58.1
    Eu0.50.60.51.61.21.51.70.91.6
    Tb0.50.50.50.50.90.60.50.50.6
    Yb0.91.01.32.82.53.83.45.73.8
    Lu0.050.090.070.240.290.510.320.670.39

    Sample numbers are the same as in those of Table 1..


    Table 7 . Summary on ultrasonic velocity and rebound hardness of concretes by building years from the study site.

    Building yearBuilding ZoneUltrasonic Velocity (m/s)Rebound Hardness (kg/cm2)
    MinMaxMeanMinMaxMean
    1907F12,8323,4663,13614.0041.5028.58
    F22,7623,4243,13321.0037.0026.47
    F34072,4301,6345.5027.0015.17
    F42,2392,4932,36615.0020.0017.00
    F Zone4073,4662,4835.5041.5021.42
    1910A12,3503,0672,84513.5036.5023.03
    A22,7703,3163,00911.5032.0020.51
    A32,9623,7173,17814.0048.5028.66
    A Zone2,3503,7172,99911.5048.5023.50
    1913N11,4762,8492,16911.5043.0020.79
    N21,8862,9712,40512.0027.5018.13
    N Zone1,4762,9712,28111.5043.0019.55
    R12,5123,0672,86011.5037.0020.95
    R22,4813,0302,75112.5032.5022.55
    R Zone2,4813,0672,79911.5037.0021.80
    Whole Zones4073,7172,6055.5048.5021.56

    Zones area the same as in those of Figure 3..


    Table 8 . Summary on unconfined compressive strength (kgf/cm2) calculated by ultrasonic velocity and rebound hardness of concretes building years from the study site.

    Building yearBuilding ZoneUltrasonic Velocity
    FC = 215VP-620
    Rebound Hardness
    FC = 7.3R+100
    MinMaxMeanMinMaxMean
    1907F3.3362.2037.5814.3041.1126.15
    1910A21.8071.3045.3018.7740.7446.33
    1913N1.3144.3020.0518.7742.2324.76
    R26.5547.7738.0518.7737.7626.42
    Whole Zones1.3171.3033.9814.3042.2326.26

    Zones are the same as in those of Figure 3..


    KSEEG
    Feb 29, 2024 Vol.57 No.1, pp. 1~91

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