Research Paper

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022; 55(1): 29-43

Published online February 28, 2022

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Estimation of Groundwater Quality and Background Level in Boseong Area, South Korea

Sang-Ho Moon1, Jinwon Lee2, Kangjoo Kim2,*, Jeong-woung Ju3

1Climate Change Response Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, 34132, Korea
2Department of Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk, 54150, Korea
3Geogreen21, 901 E&C Venture Dream Tower, Seoul 08376, Korea

Correspondence to : *Corresponding author : kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr

Received: January 13, 2022; Revised: February 15, 2022; Accepted: February 21, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The groundwater quality in Boseong area was characterized and their background concentrations were estimated based on the chemical data obtained from 200 groundwater samples collected during July 2019. Groundwater data were classified into two groups: Group 1 with NO3- < 44.3 mg/L and Group 2 with NO3- ≥ 44.3 mg/L. Results of t-tests indicate that groundwaters in Group 2 are significantly higher in water temperature and Ca concentration and significantly lower in F, As, Pb and Zn concentrations. It was also revealed that groundwaters Group 2 are closely linked to low pH, alkalinity, NH4, NO2, F, As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn levels, and high EC and water temperature. Background concentrations were estimated using the the BRIDGE method. The results depicted the higher levels in NO3, NH4, PO4, As, Fe, Mn than the ones estimated by MOE and KECO (2018; 2019), which were prepared for the three catchment units in Boseong. The results of this study are believed to have more reliability because more data were used.

Keywords Boseong area, groundwater, background level, water quality

보성지역 지하수의 배경 수질 및 오염 특성 분석

문상호1 · 이진원2 · 김강주2,* · 주정웅3

1한국지질자원연구원 기후변화대응연구본부 지하수환경연구센터
2군산대학교 환경공학과
3(주)지오그린21

요 약

2019년 7월에 얻어진 200개의 지하수 수질자료를 활용하여 보성지역 지하수의 수질 특성을 평가하고, 배경 수질을 도출하였다. 지하수는 질산성질소 농도를 기준으로 Group 1(NO3- < 44.3 mg/L)과 Group 2(NO3- ≥ 44.3 mg/L)로 구분하였다. t-test 결과, Group 2는 Group 1에 비해 유의성 있게 수온과 Ca 농도가 높았고, F, As, Pb, Zn 등의 농도는 낮게 나타났다. 질산염 농도가 높은 경우에는 낮은 pH, 알칼리도, NH4, NO2, F, As, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn 등의 농도를 보였으며, EC 및 수온은 높아지는 경향을 보였다. 한편, 배경농도는 BRIDGE 방법으로 설정하였다. 본 연구에서 설정된 NO3, NH4, PO4, As, Fe, Mn 항목들에 대한 배경농도값들은 기존의 환경부 보고서(MOE and KECO, 2018; 2019)에 제시된 중권역별 배경농도 산정 결과보다는 다소 높게 설정되었다. 본 연구에 이용된 수질자료의 수가 훨씬 많다는 점을 감안하면, 본 연구에서 산출된 배경수질 자료의 신뢰성이 더 높은 것이라 판단된다.

주요어 보성지역, 지하수, 배경농도, 수질 특성

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022; 55(1): 29-43

Published online February 28, 2022 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Estimation of Groundwater Quality and Background Level in Boseong Area, South Korea

Sang-Ho Moon1, Jinwon Lee2, Kangjoo Kim2,*, Jeong-woung Ju3

1Climate Change Response Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, 34132, Korea
2Department of Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk, 54150, Korea
3Geogreen21, 901 E&C Venture Dream Tower, Seoul 08376, Korea

Correspondence to:*Corresponding author : kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr

Received: January 13, 2022; Revised: February 15, 2022; Accepted: February 21, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The groundwater quality in Boseong area was characterized and their background concentrations were estimated based on the chemical data obtained from 200 groundwater samples collected during July 2019. Groundwater data were classified into two groups: Group 1 with NO3- < 44.3 mg/L and Group 2 with NO3- ≥ 44.3 mg/L. Results of t-tests indicate that groundwaters in Group 2 are significantly higher in water temperature and Ca concentration and significantly lower in F, As, Pb and Zn concentrations. It was also revealed that groundwaters Group 2 are closely linked to low pH, alkalinity, NH4, NO2, F, As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn levels, and high EC and water temperature. Background concentrations were estimated using the the BRIDGE method. The results depicted the higher levels in NO3, NH4, PO4, As, Fe, Mn than the ones estimated by MOE and KECO (2018; 2019), which were prepared for the three catchment units in Boseong. The results of this study are believed to have more reliability because more data were used.

Keywords Boseong area, groundwater, background level, water quality

보성지역 지하수의 배경 수질 및 오염 특성 분석

문상호1 · 이진원2 · 김강주2,* · 주정웅3

1한국지질자원연구원 기후변화대응연구본부 지하수환경연구센터
2군산대학교 환경공학과
3(주)지오그린21

Received: January 13, 2022; Revised: February 15, 2022; Accepted: February 21, 2022

요 약

2019년 7월에 얻어진 200개의 지하수 수질자료를 활용하여 보성지역 지하수의 수질 특성을 평가하고, 배경 수질을 도출하였다. 지하수는 질산성질소 농도를 기준으로 Group 1(NO3- < 44.3 mg/L)과 Group 2(NO3- ≥ 44.3 mg/L)로 구분하였다. t-test 결과, Group 2는 Group 1에 비해 유의성 있게 수온과 Ca 농도가 높았고, F, As, Pb, Zn 등의 농도는 낮게 나타났다. 질산염 농도가 높은 경우에는 낮은 pH, 알칼리도, NH4, NO2, F, As, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn 등의 농도를 보였으며, EC 및 수온은 높아지는 경향을 보였다. 한편, 배경농도는 BRIDGE 방법으로 설정하였다. 본 연구에서 설정된 NO3, NH4, PO4, As, Fe, Mn 항목들에 대한 배경농도값들은 기존의 환경부 보고서(MOE and KECO, 2018; 2019)에 제시된 중권역별 배경농도 산정 결과보다는 다소 높게 설정되었다. 본 연구에 이용된 수질자료의 수가 훨씬 많다는 점을 감안하면, 본 연구에서 산출된 배경수질 자료의 신뢰성이 더 높은 것이라 판단된다.

주요어 보성지역, 지하수, 배경농도, 수질 특성

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Municipal and catchment boundaries in Boseong area (MOE and KIGAM, 2020).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 29-43https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Hydrogeologic units in Boseong area (MOE and KIGAM, 2020).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 29-43https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Frequency analyses for field parameters and ion concentrations of groundwater sampled on July 2019 at Boseong area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 29-43https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Comparison of groundwater quality between Group 1(1.1 & 1.2) and Group 2 for groundwater sampled on July 2019 at Boseong area.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 29-43https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Correlations between NO3 concentration and other water quality items of groundwater sampled on July 2019 at Boseong area. (closed circle: Group 1.1, open circle: Group 1.2, red cross: Group 2).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2022; 55: 29-43https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.1.29

    Table 1 . A comparison of data selection protocols between BRIDGE method and this study used for estimation of groundwater background level.

    Data choice of BRIDGE methodData choice in this study
    Data excluded when CBE ≥ 10 % or when depths of samples and aquifers are unknownData excluded when CBE ≥ 10 %
    Data excluded when influenced by hydrothermal fluid or salt water. Criteria: [(Na) + (Cl)] > 1000 mg/lData excluded when [(Na) + (Cl)] > 1000 mg/l
    Time-series data can be used by their median values.Time-series data unavailable.
    Data excluded when samples were collected from the sites contaminated by agrochemicals and PAHs, etc.Agrochemicals and PAHs data unavailable.
    Data excluded when NO3 ≥ 10 mg/LData excluded when NO3 ≥ 10 mg/L
    Data excluded when NH4 ≥ 0.5 mg/LData excluded when NH4 ≥ 0.5 mg/L

    CBE: charge balance error, PAHs: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.


    Table 2 . Statistics of field parameters and ion concentrations for goundwater samples collected on July 2019 at Boseong area.

    MinMaxMedianmeanstd
    pH5.468.336.576.630.47
    ORP (RmV)19.258723024175.1
    DO (mg/L)1.1110.027.437.211.58
    EC (µS/cm)54.013,2801652911,009
    TDS (mg/L)27.06,64082.5146504
    T (˚C)14.619.11717.01.02
    Alkalinity (meq/L)0.202.560.760.870.44
    F (mg/L)0.002.800.0670.120.27
    Cl (mg/L)0.764,6268.9648.0346
    Br (mg/L)0.0017.00.020.141.23
    NO3 (mg/L)0.1123813.7421.8729.91
    NO3-N (mg/L)0.0253.73.104.946.75
    NO2 (mg/L)0.002.040.0100.030.17
    NH4 (mg/L)0.001.400.0000.040.16
    NH4-N (mg/L)0.000.550.0000.020.08
    SO4 (mg/L)0.486106.1612.545.3
    Li (µg/L)0.0067.40.014.278.79
    Na (mg/L)1.782,56510.128.7186
    K (mg/L)0.3544.91.422.904.88
    Mg (mg/L)0.572453.706.3419.2
    Ca (mg/L)2.8829314.020.127.2
    PO4 (mg/L)0.005.730.1300.190.45
    Si (mg/L)3.3023.911.211.02.95
    As (µg/L)0.0084.51.13.48.6
    Fe (mg/L)0.0015.50.000.131.12
    Mn (mg/L)0.001.770.0000.030.18
    Cu (µg/L)0.001020.933.138.23
    Al (mg/L)0.000.330.0100.020.03
    Pb (µg/L)0.0014.90.000.371.28
    Zn (µg/L)0.006,85019.4190791
    Ni (µg/L)0.009770.005.6269.1
    Sr (mg/L)0.013.930.120.210.41

    Table 3 . Comparisons of statistic data and t-test results among each group for groundwater samples collected on July 2019 at Boseong area.

    Group 1.1Group 1.2Group 1 (all)Group 2t-test results (p value)
    meanstdevmeanstdevmeanstdevmeanstdevGroup 1.1 and 1.2Group 1 and 2
    pH6.580.4806.720.4496.620.4746.690.4100.0800.520
    ORP(RmV)25279.722668.524477.421146.30.0410.006
    DO (mg/L)7.341.606.931.647.221.627.131.240.1260.797
    EC (µS/cm)13742.4573191226210395137160.1090.146
    TDS(mg/L)68.321.22869561315192563580.1090.146
    수온(°C)16.71.0317.30.93816.91.0317.60.7530.0020.001
    Alk(meq/L)0.6500.1921.410.3880.8690.4340.8890.4670.0000.840
    F (mg/L)0.0700.0400.2540.5100.1230.2870.0630.0470.0130.013
    Cl (mg/L)9.005.3513066743.936079.82140.2010.496
    Br (mg/L)0.0200.0170.4362.420.1401.300.1000.2740.2240.730
    NO3 (mg/L)14.210.613.010.213.910.583.452.30.4760.000
    NO2 (mg/L)0.0170.0490.0590.2920.0290.1620.0670.1890.3090.301
    NH4 (mg/L)0.0460.1640.0430.1710.0450.1650.0230.0350.9080.128
    SO4 (mg/L)5.974.6525.386.711.547.219.525.50.1180.218
    Li (µg/L)2.133.067.539.243.696.088.7119.50.0000.232
    Na (mg/L)9.052.7273.036227.519538.183.60.2130.643
    K (mg/L)2.142.834.298.052.765.003.973.720.0690.266
    Mg (mg/L)3.191.4711.935.65.7119.411.216.80.0860.199
    Ca (mg/L)11.53.9430.640.017.023.244.540.60.0010.004
    PO4 (mg/L)0.1590.1260.1370.0900.1530.1170.5121.280.1970.193
    Si (mg/L)10.52.6111.63.4710.82.9212.03.080.0150.632
    As (µg/L)2.644.256.4915.33.759.080.9431.340.0830.000
    Fe (mg/L)0.0610.2550.3692.170.1491.180.0130.0240.3070.121
    Mn (mg/L)0.0220.1620.0650.2580.0350.1940.0040.0120.4510.045
    Cu (µg/L)2.384.633.043.842.574.417.4320.80.1260.327
    Al (mg/L)20.034.214.018.418.330.626.126.10.1460.461
    Pb (µg/L)0.4101.480.4221.020.4131.360.0130.0450.9860.000
    Zn (µg/L)90.7223501149420983941.253.80.0450.005
    Ni (µg/L)8.5487.00.7781.836.3073.40.4181.590.3110.260
    Sr (mg/L)0.0970.0390.3740.6400.1760.3650.4530.6190.0220.058
    pCO2-2.030.466-1.820.395-1.970.456-2.150.3880.0100.423
    SICalcite-2.210.685-1.670.557-2.050.694-1.620.7050.0000.005

    Table 4 . Previous estimation results for background level of three catchments in Boseong area (MOE and KECO, 2018; 2019) (unit: mg/L).

    CatchmentItemsHydrogeologic UnitsWhole Area
    U.S.N.V.I.I.C.S.M.R.
    Isacheon streamNO3-N1.9001.6651.6001.9001.9001.900
    Cl36.720.214.525.010.025.0
    Cd0.0010.0000.0010.0010.0010.001
    As0.00250.00250.00250.00250.00250.0025
    Hg0.00050.00050.00050.00050.00050.0005
    Organic P0.000250.000250.000250.000250.000250.00025
    Pb0.00250.00250.00250.00250.00250.0025
    Cr6+0.010.010.010.010.010.01
    F1.0000.7500.7210.7210.0750.721
    NH4>-N0.0230.0620.0190.0190.0050.019
    Fe0.0800.0300.0250.0250.0250.025
    Mn0.06520.03880.03180.03180.00250.0318
    Juam damNO3-N1.7001.7001.9001.4301.7001.700
    Cl13.813.712.29.014.013.6
    Cd0.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
    As0.00930.00250.02180.00760.01100.0097
    Hg0.00050.00050.00050.00050.00050.0005
    Organic P0.000250.000250.000250.000250.000250.00025
    Pb0.00250.00250.00250.00250.00250.0025
    Cr6+0.010.010.010.010.010.01
    F0.2800.2800.2810.2810.1920.281
    NH4-N0.0050.0150.0150.0150.0270.015
    Fe0.0250.0800.0780.0780.0800.078
    Mn0.01680.01690.01690.01690.00870.0169
    Western south sea area of Seomjin-gang riverNO3-N1.661.901.871.481.801.80
    Cl33.1918.3212.8214.2016.0016.00
    Cd0.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
    As0.001980.010730.000150.000150.003750.00673
    Hg0.00050.00050.00050.00050.00050.0005
    Organic P0.000250.000250.000250.000250.000250.00025
    Pb0.000050.000050.000050.000050.000050.00005
    Cr6+0.00350.00350.00350.00350.00350.0035
    F0.3100.4100.2840.3100.0250.310
    NH4-N0.0500.0260.0420.0500.0500.050
    Fe0.00350.00350.00350.00350.00350.0035
    Mn0.005460.001600.000250.005460.010000.00546

    (Abb.) U.S.: Unconsolidated Sediments, N.V.; Non-porous Volcanics, M.R.: Metamorphosed Rocks.

    I.I.: Intrusive Igneous Rocks, C.S.: Clastic Sedimentary Rocks,.


    Table 5 . Comparison of background levels for groundwater in Boseong area between this study results and those from MOE and KECO (2018; 2019).

    Result of this studyData from MOE & KECO
    BLaBLa/meanBLb (range)
    EC (µS/cm)2911.00
    TDS (mg/L)1461.00
    Alkalinity (meq/L)2.212.53
    F (mg/L)0.6005.170.025~1.00
    Cl (mg/L)22.50.479.0~36.7
    Br (mg/L)0.0640.47
    NO3 (mg/L)9.880.45
    cal.NO3-N (mg/L)2.230.451.43~1.90
    NO2 (mg/L)0.0341.03
    NH4 (mg/L)0.1202.79
    cal.NH4–N (mg/L)0.0933.000.005~0.062
    SO4 (mg/L)16.21.30
    Li (µg/L)21.95.13
    Na (mg/L)19.00.66
    K (mg/L)10.53.62
    Mg (mg/L)5.660.89
    Ca (mg/L)35.21.75
    PO4 (mg/L)0.2961.53
    cal.PO4–P (mg/L)0.0971.560.00025
    Si (mg/L)16.81.53
    As (µg/L)33.49.740.15~11.0
    Fe (mg/L)1.5111.30.0035~0.08
    Mn (mg/L)0.9430.30.00160~0.0652
    Cu (µg/L)11.73.74
    Al (mg/L)0.0683.58
    Pb (µg/L)2.226.050.05~2.5
    Zn (µg/L)566029.8
    Ni (µg/L)8.771.56
    Sr (mg/L)0.3661.76

    BLa: Background Level data estimated in this study (by method of BRIDGE project, 2006).

    BLb: Background Level data (average values) from MOE and KECO (2018; 2019).

    cal.: calculated values.


    KSEEG
    Feb 29, 2024 Vol.57 No.1, pp. 1~91

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