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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021; 54(6): 671-687

Published online December 28, 2021

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Interpretation of Firing Temperature and Thermal Deformation of Roof Tiles from Ancient Tombs of Seokchon-dong in Seoul, Korea

Hong Ju Jin1, Sungyoon Jang2,*, Myeong Seong Lee1

1Conservation Science Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Korea
2Cultural Heritage Conservation Science Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Korea

Correspondence to : *fkite@korea.kr

Received: October 5, 2021; Revised: November 4, 2021; Accepted: November 6, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study investigated the firing temperature and thermal deformation process of roof tiles excavated from the connected stonemound tomb in Seokchon-dong, Seoul, based on mineralogical and physical properties. A large number of roof tiles were excavated from the tomb site and some roof tiles were deformed by heat and were fired in uneven conditions. The colors of original roof tiles and their cores are mostly yellowish-brown, with high water absorption over 12%, containing fine-grained textures and some minerals such as quartz, feldspars, amphibole, and mica. It is estimated that the original roof tiles were fired below 900°C in oxidation condition, showing loose matrices and mica layers by scanning electron microscopy. However, deformed roof tiles have the uneven surface color of reddish-brown and bluish-gray, and those cross-sections have sandwich structures in which dense reddish-brown surface and porous grey core coexist. They contained mullite and hercynite, so it was estimated to have been fired over 1,000°C, with 0.81~11% water absorption. In some samples, bloating pores by overfiring were observed, which means that they were fired at more than 1,200°C. In addition, the refirng experiments that the original roof tile was fired between 800°C and 1,200°C were carried out to investigate the physical and mineralogical properties of roof tiles compared to deformed ones. As a result, the water absorption decreased rapidly and the mineral phase started to change over 1,000°C. As the temperature gradually rises, the matrices are partially melted and recrystallized, resulting in similar thermal characteristics of deformed roof tiles. Therefore, the roof tiles from ancient tombs in Seokchon-dong seem to experience the secondary high temperature of 1,000 to 1,200°C under uneven firing conditions, resulting in deformation characteristics such as shape transformation and mineral phase transition. It is considered to have been related to cremation rituals at the tombs of Seockchon-dong during the Baekje period.

Keywords ancient tombs in Seokchon-dong, roof tile, firing temperature, refiring experiment, thermal deformation

서울 석촌동 고분군 출토 기와의 소성온도와 열변형 특성 해석

진홍주1 · 장성윤2,* · 이명성1

1국립문화재연구소 보존과학연구실
2국립문화재연구소 문화재보존과학센터

요 약

이 연구에서는 서울 석촌동 고분군 연접적석총에서 출토된 기와의 물리적 및 광물학적 특성을 바탕으로 소성온도를 추정하고, 열변형 과정을 해석하였다. 석촌동 고분군에서는 다량의 기와가 출토되었는데, 일부 기와는 열에 의해 형태가 변하고 불균일한 소성상태를 나타냈다. 원형기와의 표면과 속심의 색조는 비교적 균일한 황갈색 계열로서 약 12% 이상의 높은 흡수율을 나타내며, 미정질 기질에 세립질 석영, 장석류, 운모, 각섬석 등을 포함한다. 또한 미세조직 관찰 결과, 느슨한 기질과 운모의 층상구조가 확인되어 900℃ 이하의 산화환경에서 제작되었을 것으로 추정된다. 반면 열에 변형된 기와는 주로 적갈색과 청회색의 불균일한 표면 색조를 보이며, 단면은 치밀한 적갈색 표면과 다공성의 자회색 내부기질이 함께 나타나는 샌드위치 구조를 나타낸다. 흡수율은 0.8~11%이며, 멀라이트, 헤르시나이트가 동정되어 소성온도가 1,000℃ 이상으로 추정된다. 일부 시료에서는 과소성에 의한 블로우팅 포어(bloating pore)가 관찰되었고, 1,200℃ 이상의 고온을 경험한 것으로 판단된다. 한편, 원형기와를 800~1,200℃ 사이에서 온도별로 재소성하여 물리적 및 광물학적 특성을 확인한 결과, 1,000℃ 부근에서 흡수율이 급격히 낮아지고 고온광물이 생성되기 시작했다. 또한 점차 온도가 올라갈수록 기질이 부분 용융되고 재결정화되어 변형기와의 열변형 특성과 유사한 결과를 나타냈다. 따라서 석촌동 고분군 기와는 불균일한 소성상태와 1,000~1,200℃에 달하는 2차 고온을 경험하여 형태 변형, 광물 상전이 등의 열변형 특성이 발생하였고, 이는 백제시대 화장의례와 관계가 있는 것으로 생각된다.

주요어 석촌동 고분군, 기와, 소성온도, 재소성실험, 열변형

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021; 54(6): 671-687

Published online December 28, 2021 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Interpretation of Firing Temperature and Thermal Deformation of Roof Tiles from Ancient Tombs of Seokchon-dong in Seoul, Korea

Hong Ju Jin1, Sungyoon Jang2,*, Myeong Seong Lee1

1Conservation Science Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Korea
2Cultural Heritage Conservation Science Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon 34122, Korea

Correspondence to:*fkite@korea.kr

Received: October 5, 2021; Revised: November 4, 2021; Accepted: November 6, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study investigated the firing temperature and thermal deformation process of roof tiles excavated from the connected stonemound tomb in Seokchon-dong, Seoul, based on mineralogical and physical properties. A large number of roof tiles were excavated from the tomb site and some roof tiles were deformed by heat and were fired in uneven conditions. The colors of original roof tiles and their cores are mostly yellowish-brown, with high water absorption over 12%, containing fine-grained textures and some minerals such as quartz, feldspars, amphibole, and mica. It is estimated that the original roof tiles were fired below 900°C in oxidation condition, showing loose matrices and mica layers by scanning electron microscopy. However, deformed roof tiles have the uneven surface color of reddish-brown and bluish-gray, and those cross-sections have sandwich structures in which dense reddish-brown surface and porous grey core coexist. They contained mullite and hercynite, so it was estimated to have been fired over 1,000°C, with 0.81~11% water absorption. In some samples, bloating pores by overfiring were observed, which means that they were fired at more than 1,200°C. In addition, the refirng experiments that the original roof tile was fired between 800°C and 1,200°C were carried out to investigate the physical and mineralogical properties of roof tiles compared to deformed ones. As a result, the water absorption decreased rapidly and the mineral phase started to change over 1,000°C. As the temperature gradually rises, the matrices are partially melted and recrystallized, resulting in similar thermal characteristics of deformed roof tiles. Therefore, the roof tiles from ancient tombs in Seokchon-dong seem to experience the secondary high temperature of 1,000 to 1,200°C under uneven firing conditions, resulting in deformation characteristics such as shape transformation and mineral phase transition. It is considered to have been related to cremation rituals at the tombs of Seockchon-dong during the Baekje period.

Keywords ancient tombs in Seokchon-dong, roof tile, firing temperature, refiring experiment, thermal deformation

서울 석촌동 고분군 출토 기와의 소성온도와 열변형 특성 해석

진홍주1 · 장성윤2,* · 이명성1

1국립문화재연구소 보존과학연구실
2국립문화재연구소 문화재보존과학센터

Received: October 5, 2021; Revised: November 4, 2021; Accepted: November 6, 2021

요 약

이 연구에서는 서울 석촌동 고분군 연접적석총에서 출토된 기와의 물리적 및 광물학적 특성을 바탕으로 소성온도를 추정하고, 열변형 과정을 해석하였다. 석촌동 고분군에서는 다량의 기와가 출토되었는데, 일부 기와는 열에 의해 형태가 변하고 불균일한 소성상태를 나타냈다. 원형기와의 표면과 속심의 색조는 비교적 균일한 황갈색 계열로서 약 12% 이상의 높은 흡수율을 나타내며, 미정질 기질에 세립질 석영, 장석류, 운모, 각섬석 등을 포함한다. 또한 미세조직 관찰 결과, 느슨한 기질과 운모의 층상구조가 확인되어 900℃ 이하의 산화환경에서 제작되었을 것으로 추정된다. 반면 열에 변형된 기와는 주로 적갈색과 청회색의 불균일한 표면 색조를 보이며, 단면은 치밀한 적갈색 표면과 다공성의 자회색 내부기질이 함께 나타나는 샌드위치 구조를 나타낸다. 흡수율은 0.8~11%이며, 멀라이트, 헤르시나이트가 동정되어 소성온도가 1,000℃ 이상으로 추정된다. 일부 시료에서는 과소성에 의한 블로우팅 포어(bloating pore)가 관찰되었고, 1,200℃ 이상의 고온을 경험한 것으로 판단된다. 한편, 원형기와를 800~1,200℃ 사이에서 온도별로 재소성하여 물리적 및 광물학적 특성을 확인한 결과, 1,000℃ 부근에서 흡수율이 급격히 낮아지고 고온광물이 생성되기 시작했다. 또한 점차 온도가 올라갈수록 기질이 부분 용융되고 재결정화되어 변형기와의 열변형 특성과 유사한 결과를 나타냈다. 따라서 석촌동 고분군 기와는 불균일한 소성상태와 1,000~1,200℃에 달하는 2차 고온을 경험하여 형태 변형, 광물 상전이 등의 열변형 특성이 발생하였고, 이는 백제시대 화장의례와 관계가 있는 것으로 생각된다.

주요어 석촌동 고분군, 기와, 소성온도, 재소성실험, 열변형

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Location map of ancient tombs of Seokchon-dong in Seoul, Korea(modified Naver Map; Seoul Baekje Museum, 2019), (A) Location of historic sites around Seokchon-dong during Baekje period, (B) Distribution of ancient tombs of Seokchon-dong, (C) Connected stone-mound tomb, (D) Magnification of the box area at (C).
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Roof tile samples excavated from ancient tombs of Seokchon-dong site, showing various textures and colors affected by firing temperature and condition. Samples are divided by original and deformed roof tiles and chosen by their shapes and colors.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Diagram of physical properties for roof tiles. (A) chromaticity, (B) water absorption and specific gravity.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Diagrams of the magnetic susceptibility for roof tiles.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Representative X-ray diffraction patterns of roof tiles. Abbreviations: Q; quartz, K; K-feldspar, P; plagioclase, M; mica, Am; amphibole, Mu; mullite, Her; hercynite, H; hematite, T; tridymite.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Representative photomicrographs of roof tiles using the stereoscopic and polarizing microscope.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Scanning electron microscopic images of roof tiles with mineral contents.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Distribution diagrams showing Al2O3/SiO2 - Fe2O3/SiO2 and Fe2O3+MgO – Na2O+K2O of the roof tiles.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Thermal deformation of roof tile sample(#24) (A) swelling by bloating, (B) crack in the core, (C) glossy surface, and (D) cross section with vitrified textures and bloating pores.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Cross sections of roof tile refired by temperature in oxidation atmosphere.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Fig 11.

    Figure 11.X-ray diffraction patterns and microstructure images according to refiring temperature. Abbreviations: Q; quartz, K; K-feldspar, P; plagioclase, M; mica, Am; amphibole, Mu; mullite, H; hematite, T; tridymite.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 671-687https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.6.671

    Table 1 . Details of the roof tiles.

    GroupSampleTypeSurface patternThicknessSurface color1
    OuterInner
    Original roof tiles#01convexpatternless9mmGG
    #02convexpatternless9mmYBYB
    #03convexpatternless8mmYRYR
    #07convexlattice8mmYBYB
    #08convexlattice7mmYBYB
    #09convexlattice10mmYRYR
    #12convexline10mmGG
    #13convexline9mmGG
    #15concavepatternless12mmYRYR
    #17concavepatternless9mmYRYR
    #18concavepatternless11mmYRYR
    #19concavelattice8mmGG
    #20concavelattice11mmYBYB
    #21concavelattice11mmYRYR
    #26concavelattice8mmYBYB
    #27concavelattice8mmBB
    #28concaveline12mmYRYR
    Deformed roof tiles#04convexpatternless9mmBGRB
    #05convexpatternless14mmRB/BGRB
    #06convexpatternless9mmRB/BGRB/BG
    #10convexlattice8mmYRYR
    #11convexlattice12mmRBYR
    #14convexline8mmBGRB
    #16concavepatternless13mmYRRB
    #22concavelattice13mmRBYR
    #23concavelattice12mmYR/BG/RBYR/BG/RB
    #24concavelattice16mmBG/RBBG/RB
    #25concavelattice12mmBGBG
    #29concaveline12mmYR/RBYR/RB

    1YB; yellowish brown, YR; yellowish red, RB; reddish brown, G; gray, BG; bluish gray, PG; purplish gray, B; black..


    Table 2 . Physical and Mineralogical properties for roof tiles.

    GroupSampleChromaticitySpecific gravityWater absorption (%)Magnetic susceptibility1Minerals2
    L*a*b*
    Original roof tiles#0139.730.594.311.9410.322.79Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #0256.364.4616.141.7516.572.79Q, K, P, M
    #0363.9514.3127.901.7416.732.27Q, K, P, M, Am
    #0755.748.0221.831.7814.570.94Q, K, P, M
    #0860.594.1315.851.8014.000.52Q, K, P, M
    #0958.5220.2429.831.7316.973.21Q, K, P
    #1249.993.5714.281.8712.241.66Q, K, P
    #1361.970.658.291.8213.680.27Q, K, P, M
    #1558.3812.9726.791.8115.917.86Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #1754.4623.8436.251.6720.807.65Q, K, P, M
    #1851.3010.2620.231.8315.271.12Q, K, P, M
    #1958.051.4611.261.7416.890.98Q, K, P, Am
    #2061.984.9618.881.8214.303.89Q, K, P, M
    #2153.0219.6929.031.7318.3610.76Q, K, P, Am
    #2661.254.5816.501.8015.120.87Q, K, P, M, Am
    #2737.922.106.791.8214.062.07Q, K, P, M
    #2853.8520.1625.482.017.857.28Q, K, P, Mu, Her, T
    Deformed roof tiles#0440.38-0.793.052.340.801.40Q, Mu, Her
    #05-151.4111.3018.481.376.990.44Core: Q, P, Mu, Her
    #05-239.143.169.541.376.99Surface: Q. P, Mu, Her, H
    #0647.7215.1219.952.064.811.58Core: Q, P, Mu, Her, T
    #0647.7215.1219.952.064.81Surface: Q, P, Mu, Her, T, H
    #1053.2615.4022.711.978.670.65Q, K, P, Mu
    #11-144.717.0412.162.047.820.87Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #11-242.594.689.561.901.73Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #1442.720.275.482.350.870.70Q, P, Mu, Her
    #16-151.8015.4325.521.238.930.58Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #16-245.153.7711.571.238.93
    #2245.9118.7722.541.9811.016.46Q, K, Her
    #23-153.1720.0429.191.7816.381.78Q, K, P, M, Am
    #23-236.530.706.00---
    #23-336.292.287.962.252.42Q, K, Mu, Her, H
    #24-140.96-1.103.711.049.220.31Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #24-238.075.809.201.049.22
    #2546.960.617.561.3310.890.68Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #29-153.7318.2925.992.017.241.16Q, K, P, Mu, Her
    #29-238.193.387.941.407.41Q, K, P, Mu, Her

    1Average magnetic susceptibility(×10-3 SI unit)..

    2Abbreviations: Q; quartz, K; K-feldspar, P; plagioclase, M; mica, Am; amphibole, Mu; mullite, Her; hercynite, H; hematite, T; tridymite..


    Table 3 . Microstructure characteristics of roof tiles.

    GroupSampleStructure1Color2Voids3Vitrification4
    CoreMargin
    Original roof tiles#01singleGGchannelsEV
    #02singleYBYBvughsNV
    #03singleYRYRvughsNV
    #07singleYBYBvughsNV
    #08singleYBYBvughsNV
    #09singleYRYRvughs-
    #12singleGGchannelsEV
    #13singleGGvughsIV
    #15sandwichGYRvughsIV
    #17singleYRYRvughsNV
    #18singleYRYRvughsNV
    #19singleGGchannelsNV
    #20singleYBYBvughsNV
    #21singleYRYRvughsIV
    #26sandwichBYBplanarNV
    #27singleBBplanarNV
    #28sandwichBGYRvughsEV
    Deformed roof tiles#04sandwichBGRBchannelsCV
    #05sandwichPGRBvesiclesCV
    #06sandwichPGRBvesiclesCV
    #10singleYRYRchannels-
    #11-1sandwichBGYRchannelsCV
    #11-2sandwichPGBGvughs
    #14sandwichRB - BGchannelsCV
    #16sandwichPGRBvesiclesCV
    #22sandwichBGYRchannelsEV
    #23-1singleYRYRchannels-
    #23-3sandwichRBBG-EV
    #24sandwichPGBGvesiclesCV
    #25sandwichPG - BGvesiclesCV
    #29-1sandwichYR - BGchannelsEV
    #29-2sandwichPGBGvesicles

    1Single; cross section shows similar color between core and margin, sandwich; cross section shows different color between core and margin..

    2YB; yellowish brown; YR; yellowish red, RB; reddish brown, G; gray, BG; bluish gray, PG; purplish gray, B; black..

    3Polarizing microscope observation for thin section(Quinn, 2013)..

    4NV; no vitrification, IV; initial vitrification, EV; extensive vitrification, CV; continuous vitrification(by SEM observation, Maniatis and Tite, 1981)..


    Table 4 . Major elements composition of roof tiles(wt.%).

    GroupSampleSiO2Al2O3Fe2O3MnOMgOCaONa2OK2OTiO2P2O5LOITotal
    Original roof tiles#0165.6517.917.650.051.320.630.742.080.890.202.5299.63
    #0261.8919.995.580.001.140.430.902.280.960.366.0699.58
    #0362.0320.566.280.041.190.630.802.311.020.514.3799.74
    #0766.1516.843.900.020.670.401.073.470.810.315.9499.57
    #0865.1216.843.960.000.680.401.123.450.810.336.9199.62
    #0968.0017.664.310.020.870.411.173.460.950.102.5199.48
    #1266.4818.387.440.051.240.570.732.170.890.150.8498.94
    #1364.0419.225.620.041.250.671.052.310.910.912.9598.96
    #1559.5920.119.910.102.061.060.691.731.100.342.7399.42
    #1764.8417.767.460.061.340.380.832.440.920.182.9699.17
    #1862.7017.816.870.041.170.340.872.510.880.375.6499.18
    #1964.4920.086.350.001.240.510.932.380.930.191.8398.93
    #2061.9619.525.570.050.930.571.082.160.880.256.0599.00
    #2159.6019.5810.110.122.130.960.701.751.170.182.6698.95
    #2664.9416.834.160.000.900.480.892.250.830.686.9198.86
    #2764.6316.244.480.000.890.450.732.090.860.308.2798.95
    #2865.2619.397.180.031.140.451.032.270.950.211.1799.08
    Deformed roof tiles#0463.6121.436.430.031.350.500.802.441.000.142.1399.86
    #0565.3319.806.300.031.260.671.072.340.970.151.7699.69
    #0661.0620.3910.140.112.081.030.611.801.180.161.0799.64
    #1068.4916.964.180.020.840.381.113.580.860.082.3198.79
    #1165.2719.896.550.031.300.581.122.360.950.230.6898.94
    #1464.8719.856.490.001.290.601.052.310.970.161.5599.13
    #1664.9119.646.840.031.290.641.012.330.940.221.6199.46
    #2260.2022.009.320.041.520.460.432.100.970.231.6898.94
    #2365.5318.976.670.001.460.530.702.360.930.211.5198.84
    #2465.2719.196.380.051.320.661.212.450.900.141.4298.98
    #2568.1917.093.930.030.910.411.103.470.750.032.6298.51
    #2965.1819.086.320.041.220.661.012.420.930.171.7298.73

    Table 5 . Thermal characteristics of the roof tiles..

    Original roof tilesDeformed roof tiles
    Surface coloryellowish brown, yellowish redreddish brown, bluish gray
    Cross section(color)singlesandwich structure
    Water absorptionmean: 14.92%mean: 6.34%
    Specific gravity1.67~2.011.04~1.40 / 1.78~2.35
    Mineralquartz, feldspars, micas, amphibole, etc.quartz, feldspars, mullite, hercynite, etc.
    Vitrification structureNV, IVEV, CV
    Firing atmosphereoxidation / reductionoxidation / reduction
    Firing temperature700~900℃1,000~1,200℃

    Table 6 . Physical and mineralogical properties according to temperature stages for refiring experiment about the #03 sample.

    Refiring temperatureChromaticityWater absorptionSpecific gravityMinerals1Vitrification2
    L*a*b*
    #0363.9514.3127.9016.73%1.74Q, K, P, M, AmNV
    800℃65.5518.5232.8218.01%1.75Q, K, P, M, Am, HIV
    850℃63.5021.3034.5018.27%1.75Q, K, P, M, Am, HIV
    900℃65.3621.1035.3718.32%1.74Q, K, P, M, Am, HIV
    950℃63.8223.2736.9517.17%1.78Q, K, P, Am, HEV
    1,000℃59.2626.8436.5415.68%1.82Q, K, P, Mu, HEV
    1,050℃55.9927.0032.969.97%1.99Q, K, P, Mu, H, TEV
    1,100℃44.8124.2823.084.71%2.18Q, K, P, Mu, H, TCV
    1,150℃43.9123.0320.862.52%2.22Q, Mu, H, TCV
    1,200℃40.8014.5410.640.63%2.25Q, Mu, H, TCV

    1Abbreviations: Q; quartz, K; K-feldspar, P; plagioclase, M; mica, Am; amphibole, Mu; mullite, H; hematite, T; tridymite..

    2NV; no vitrification, IV; initial vitrification, EV; extensive vitrification, CV; continuous vitrification(Maniatis and Tite, 1981)..


    Table 7 . Interpretation of firing temperature for roof tiles.

    GroupSampleFiring temperatureSampleFiring temperatureSampleFiring temperature
    Original roof tiles#011,000~1,100℃#12950~1,000℃#20700~900℃
    #02700~900℃#13700~900℃#21900~950℃
    #03700~900℃#151,000~1,100℃#26700~900℃
    #07700~900℃#17700~900℃#27700~900℃
    #08700~900℃#18700~900℃#281,000~1,100℃
    #09950~1,000℃#19900~950℃
    Deformed roof tiles#041,100~1,200℃#11-11,000~1,100℃#23-31,000~1,100℃
    #05-11,000~1,100℃#11-21,000~1,100℃#241,000~1,100℃
    #05-21,000~1,100℃#141,000~1,100℃#251,000~1,100℃
    #06-11,000~1,100℃#161,000~1,100℃#29-11,000~1,100℃
    #06-21,000~1,100℃#221,000~1,100℃#29-21,000~1,100℃
    #101,000~1,100℃#23-1700~900℃

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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