Research Paper

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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021; 54(4): 409-425

Published online August 31, 2021

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Leaked from Geological Storage Site on Soil Fertility: A Study on Artificial Leakage

Seung Han Baek1, Sang-Woo Lee1, Woo-Chun Lee1, Seong-Taek Yun2, Soon-Oh Kim1,*

1Department of Geology and Research Institute of Natural Science (RINS), Gyeongsang National University (GNU), Jinju 52828, Korea
2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea

Correspondence to : sokim@gnu.ac.kr

Received: July 16, 2021; Revised: August 18, 2021; Accepted: August 20, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Carbon dioxide has been known to be a typical greenhouse gas causing global warming, and a number of efforts have been proposed to reduce its concentration in the atmosphere. Among them, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) has been taken into great account to accomplish the target reduction of carbon dioxide. In order to commercialize the CCS, its safety should be secured. In particular, if the stored carbon dioxide is leaked in the arable land, serious problems could come up in terms of crop growth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon dioxide leaked from storage sites on soil fertility. The leakage of carbon dioxide was simulated using the facility of its artificial injection into soils in the laboratory. Several soil chemical properties, such as pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, the concentrations of exchangeable cations, nitrogen (N) (total-N, nitrate-N, and ammonia- N), phosphorus (P) (total-P and available-P), sulfur (S) (total-S and available-S), available-boron (B), and the contents of soil organic matter, were monitored as indicators of soil fertility during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. Two kinds of soils, such as non-cultivated and cultivated soils, were compared in the artificial injection tests, and the latter included maize- and soybeancultivated soils. The non-cultivated soil (NCS) was sandy soil of 42.6% porosity, the maize-cultivated soil (MCS) and soybeancultivated soil (SCS) were loamy sand having 46.8% and 48.0% of porosities, respectively. The artificial injection facility had six columns: one was for the control without carbon dioxide injection, and the other five columns were used for the injections tests. Total injection periods for NCS and MCS/SCS were 60 and 70 days, respectively, and artificial rainfall events were simulated using one pore volume after the 12-day injection for the NCS and the 14-day injection for the MCS/SCS. After each rainfall event, the soil fertility indicators were measured for soil and leachate solution, and they were compared before and after the injection of carbon dioxide. The results indicate that the residual concentrations of exchangeable cations, total-N, total-P, the content of soil organic matter, and electrical conductivity were not likely to be affected by the injection of carbon dioxide. However, the residual concentrations of nitrate-N, ammonia-N, available-P, available-S, and available-B tended to decrease after the carbon dioxide injection, indicating that soil fertility might be reduced. Meanwhile, soil pH did not seem to be influenced due to the buffering capacity of soils, but it is speculated that a long-term leakage of carbon dioxide might bring about soil acidification.

Keywords carbon dioxide, geological storage, leakage, soil fertility, artificial injection test

지중 저장지로부터 누출된 이산화탄소가 토양 비옥도에 미치는 영향: 인위 누출 연구

백승한1 · 이상우1 · 이우춘1 · 윤성택2 · 김순오1,*

1경상국립대학교 지질과학과 및 기초과학연구소(RINS)
2고려대학교 지구환경과학과

요 약

이산화탄소가 지구온난화를 초래하는 대표적인 온실가스로 지목되면서 대기 중의 이산화탄소 농도를 줄이기 위하여 많은 노력들이 진행되어 왔다. 그러한 노력들 중 특히 CO2 포집 및 지중 저장기술(carbon dioxide capture and storage, CCS)이 감축 목표량을 달성하기 위해서 필수적으로 고려되고 있다. 그러나 이러한 지중 저장기술이 상용화되기 위해서는 안전성이 보장되어야 한다. 특히 이산화탄소 누출이 농경지에서 발생할 경우에는 작물 생장과 관련되어 많은 문제를 야기할 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 지중 저장지로부터 누출된 이산화탄소가 토양 비옥도에 미치는 영향에 대하여 고찰하였다. 이를 위하여 인위적인 이산화탄소 누출 시험을 수행하였으며, pH, 양이온치환용량, 교환성 양이온, 전기전도도, 토양 유기물 함량, 총 질소, 질산태 질소, 암모니아태 질소, 총 인, 유효태 인산, 총 황, 유효태 황, 유효태 붕소 등과 같은 토양의 화학적 특성들을 비옥도 지시 인자로 선정하였다. 누출 시험은 비경작지 토양 한 종류와 경작지 토양 두 종류(옥수수와 콩 재배)를 대상으로 이루어졌다. 비경작지 토양은 거친 모래가 많은 사질토양으로 공극률은 42.6%로 조사되었으며, 경작지 토양인 옥수수 재배 토양은 양질 사토(loamy sand)로 공극률이 46.8%이었다. 콩과식물(soybean) 재배 토양은 옥수수 재배 토양과 동일한 양질 사토로서 공극률이 48%로 조사되었다. 누출시험을 위해 6개의 인공누출 칼럼 장치를 이용하여 이산화탄소를 주입하였다. 이산화탄소 주입은 비경작지와 경작지 토양의 경우 각각 60일과 70일 동안 진행하였다. 이산화탄소 누출 후 비경작지 및 경작지 토양에 대하여 각각 12, 14일 간격으로 1 공극 부피의 인공강우 모사 시험을 수행한 후 용출액과 토양 시료를 채취하여 비옥도 지시 인자를 분석하였으며, 이산화탄소 누출 전후 변화 양상을 비교 평가하였다. 토양 내 잔류 교환성 양이온, 전기전도도, 토양 유기물 함량, 총질소, 총인 등은 이산화탄소의 영향을 크게 받지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 질산태 질소, 암모니아태 질소, 유효 인산, 유효 황, 유효 붕소 등은 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 이에 의해 토양 비옥도를 저하시킬 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구에서는 토양의 완충능력 때문에 pH의 변화가 없었지만, 이산화탄소가 장기간 누출된다면 pH의 감소에 의한 토양산성화가 초래될 가능성이 있을 것으로 예측된다.

주요어 이산화탄소, 지중 저장, 누출, 토양비옥도, 인위 주입 시험

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021; 54(4): 409-425

Published online August 31, 2021 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Leaked from Geological Storage Site on Soil Fertility: A Study on Artificial Leakage

Seung Han Baek1, Sang-Woo Lee1, Woo-Chun Lee1, Seong-Taek Yun2, Soon-Oh Kim1,*

1Department of Geology and Research Institute of Natural Science (RINS), Gyeongsang National University (GNU), Jinju 52828, Korea
2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea

Correspondence to:sokim@gnu.ac.kr

Received: July 16, 2021; Revised: August 18, 2021; Accepted: August 20, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Carbon dioxide has been known to be a typical greenhouse gas causing global warming, and a number of efforts have been proposed to reduce its concentration in the atmosphere. Among them, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) has been taken into great account to accomplish the target reduction of carbon dioxide. In order to commercialize the CCS, its safety should be secured. In particular, if the stored carbon dioxide is leaked in the arable land, serious problems could come up in terms of crop growth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon dioxide leaked from storage sites on soil fertility. The leakage of carbon dioxide was simulated using the facility of its artificial injection into soils in the laboratory. Several soil chemical properties, such as pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, the concentrations of exchangeable cations, nitrogen (N) (total-N, nitrate-N, and ammonia- N), phosphorus (P) (total-P and available-P), sulfur (S) (total-S and available-S), available-boron (B), and the contents of soil organic matter, were monitored as indicators of soil fertility during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. Two kinds of soils, such as non-cultivated and cultivated soils, were compared in the artificial injection tests, and the latter included maize- and soybeancultivated soils. The non-cultivated soil (NCS) was sandy soil of 42.6% porosity, the maize-cultivated soil (MCS) and soybeancultivated soil (SCS) were loamy sand having 46.8% and 48.0% of porosities, respectively. The artificial injection facility had six columns: one was for the control without carbon dioxide injection, and the other five columns were used for the injections tests. Total injection periods for NCS and MCS/SCS were 60 and 70 days, respectively, and artificial rainfall events were simulated using one pore volume after the 12-day injection for the NCS and the 14-day injection for the MCS/SCS. After each rainfall event, the soil fertility indicators were measured for soil and leachate solution, and they were compared before and after the injection of carbon dioxide. The results indicate that the residual concentrations of exchangeable cations, total-N, total-P, the content of soil organic matter, and electrical conductivity were not likely to be affected by the injection of carbon dioxide. However, the residual concentrations of nitrate-N, ammonia-N, available-P, available-S, and available-B tended to decrease after the carbon dioxide injection, indicating that soil fertility might be reduced. Meanwhile, soil pH did not seem to be influenced due to the buffering capacity of soils, but it is speculated that a long-term leakage of carbon dioxide might bring about soil acidification.

Keywords carbon dioxide, geological storage, leakage, soil fertility, artificial injection test

지중 저장지로부터 누출된 이산화탄소가 토양 비옥도에 미치는 영향: 인위 누출 연구

백승한1 · 이상우1 · 이우춘1 · 윤성택2 · 김순오1,*

1경상국립대학교 지질과학과 및 기초과학연구소(RINS)
2고려대학교 지구환경과학과

Received: July 16, 2021; Revised: August 18, 2021; Accepted: August 20, 2021

요 약

이산화탄소가 지구온난화를 초래하는 대표적인 온실가스로 지목되면서 대기 중의 이산화탄소 농도를 줄이기 위하여 많은 노력들이 진행되어 왔다. 그러한 노력들 중 특히 CO2 포집 및 지중 저장기술(carbon dioxide capture and storage, CCS)이 감축 목표량을 달성하기 위해서 필수적으로 고려되고 있다. 그러나 이러한 지중 저장기술이 상용화되기 위해서는 안전성이 보장되어야 한다. 특히 이산화탄소 누출이 농경지에서 발생할 경우에는 작물 생장과 관련되어 많은 문제를 야기할 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 지중 저장지로부터 누출된 이산화탄소가 토양 비옥도에 미치는 영향에 대하여 고찰하였다. 이를 위하여 인위적인 이산화탄소 누출 시험을 수행하였으며, pH, 양이온치환용량, 교환성 양이온, 전기전도도, 토양 유기물 함량, 총 질소, 질산태 질소, 암모니아태 질소, 총 인, 유효태 인산, 총 황, 유효태 황, 유효태 붕소 등과 같은 토양의 화학적 특성들을 비옥도 지시 인자로 선정하였다. 누출 시험은 비경작지 토양 한 종류와 경작지 토양 두 종류(옥수수와 콩 재배)를 대상으로 이루어졌다. 비경작지 토양은 거친 모래가 많은 사질토양으로 공극률은 42.6%로 조사되었으며, 경작지 토양인 옥수수 재배 토양은 양질 사토(loamy sand)로 공극률이 46.8%이었다. 콩과식물(soybean) 재배 토양은 옥수수 재배 토양과 동일한 양질 사토로서 공극률이 48%로 조사되었다. 누출시험을 위해 6개의 인공누출 칼럼 장치를 이용하여 이산화탄소를 주입하였다. 이산화탄소 주입은 비경작지와 경작지 토양의 경우 각각 60일과 70일 동안 진행하였다. 이산화탄소 누출 후 비경작지 및 경작지 토양에 대하여 각각 12, 14일 간격으로 1 공극 부피의 인공강우 모사 시험을 수행한 후 용출액과 토양 시료를 채취하여 비옥도 지시 인자를 분석하였으며, 이산화탄소 누출 전후 변화 양상을 비교 평가하였다. 토양 내 잔류 교환성 양이온, 전기전도도, 토양 유기물 함량, 총질소, 총인 등은 이산화탄소의 영향을 크게 받지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 질산태 질소, 암모니아태 질소, 유효 인산, 유효 황, 유효 붕소 등은 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 이에 의해 토양 비옥도를 저하시킬 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구에서는 토양의 완충능력 때문에 pH의 변화가 없었지만, 이산화탄소가 장기간 누출된다면 pH의 감소에 의한 토양산성화가 초래될 가능성이 있을 것으로 예측된다.

주요어 이산화탄소, 지중 저장, 누출, 토양비옥도, 인위 주입 시험

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.The principle and results of HYPROP II analyses. (a) schematic diagram showing the principle of HYPROPII (Meter Group AG, 2018), (b) the results of non-cultivated soil, (c) the results of maize-cultivated soil, (d) the results of soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Variation in pH during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. (a) within soil and (b, c, and d) within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Variation in electrical conductivity (EC) during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. (a) within soil and (b, c, and d) within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Variation in cation exchange capacity (CEC) within soil during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.Variation in the concentrations of exchangeable cations within soil during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. (a) Na, (b) K, (c) Ca, and (d) Mg. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Variation in the concentrations of exchangeable cations within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. (a, b, and c) Na, (d, e, and f) K, (g, h, and i) Ca, and (j, k, and l) Mg. PV: pore volumes, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Variation in the content of soil organic matter (SOM) within soil (a) and the concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events (b, c, and d) during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Variation in the concentrations of (a) total-nitrogen (T-N), (b) nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and (c) ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) within soil during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Variation in the concentrations of (a) total-nitrogen (T-N), (b) nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and (c) ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. PV: pore volumes, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Variation in the concentrations of (a) total-phosphorus (T-P) and (b) available-phosphorus (Av. P) within soil and (c and d) T-P within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maizecultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 11.

    Figure 11.Variation in the concentrations of (a) total-sulfur (T-S) and (b) available-sulfur (Av. S) within soil and (c, d, and e) T-S and (f, g, and h) Av. S within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Fig 12.

    Figure 12.Variation in the concentrations of available-boron (Av. B) during the period of artificial injection of carbon dioxide. (a) within soil and (b, c, and d) within the leachate solutions after artificial rainfall events. I: initial, PV: pore volumes, 5C: 5 pore volumes in the control tests with no injection of carbon dioxide, NCS: non-cultivated soil, MCS: maize-cultivated soil, and SCS: soybean-cultivated soil.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 409-425https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.4.409

    Table 1 . Analytical methods for soil fertility indicators in soils.

    IndicatorPretreatment (extraction)Analysis
    MajorpH/ECDistilled waterpH/EC meter
    CECSodium acetate methodICP-OES
    Ex. cation (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+)1M ammonium acetate methodICP-OES
    Soil organic matter (SOM)Tyurin methodTitration
    Total-N (T-N)Kjeldahl methodTitration
    NO3-N/NH4-N2M KCl extractionColorimeter
    Total-P (T-P)HClO4 digestion and Mo colorimetryUV-vis spectrophotometer
    Available-P (Av. P (Av. P2O5))Lancaster methodUV-vis spectrophotometer
    Total-S (T-S)HNO3+HClO4 extractionICP-OES
    Available-S (Av. S (SO4))Ca(H2PO4)2 extractionIC
    AuxiliaryAvailable-B (Av. B)Hot water extractionICP- OES
    Trace element (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, etc)Aqua regia extractionICP- OES

    Table 2 . Analytical methods for soil fertility indicators in rainfall leachates.

    IndicatorAnalytical instrument
    MajorpH/ECpH/EC meter
    Ex. cation (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+)ICP-OES
    Total organic carbon (TOC)Autoanalyzer
    Total-N (T-N)Autoanalyzer
    NO3-NIC
    NH4-NColorimeter
    Total-P (T-P)UV-vis spectrophotometer
    Available-P (Av. P (Av. P2O5))UV-vis spectrophotometer
    Total-S (T-S)ICP-OES
    Available-S (Av. S (SO4))IC
    AuxiliaryAvailable B (Av. B)ICP-OES
    Trace element (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, etc)ICP- OES

    Table 3 . Initial values of major indicators.

    Indicator (unit)ValueCommon rangeReference
    Non-cultivated soil (NCS)Maize-cultivated soil (MCS)Soybeancultivated soil (SCS)
    pH4.8±0.25.8±0.18.2±0.26.0-7.0Chae et al. (2018)
    EC (μS/cm)56±5211±7135±22,000Chae et al. (2018)
    CEC (cmolc/kg)4.7±0.39.9±0.412.7±0.410-12Kim et al. (2018)
    Ex. cation
    Na+ (cmolc/kg)0.0010.0330.100.15Kim et al. (2018)
    K+ (cmolc/kg)0.140.470.500.5-0.8Chae et al. (2018)
    Ca2+ (cmolc/kg)3.07.8255-6Chae et al. (2018)
    Mg2+ (cmolc/kg)1.91.50.51.5-2.0Chae et al. (2018)
    SOM (%)1.13.53.93-5Chae et al. (2018)
    Total-N (T-N) (mg/kg)311±50800±3071,648±201,090-1,250Onyenali et al. (2019)
    NO3-N (mg/kg)16±379±835±3-
    NH4-N (mg/kg)17±220±1270±10-
    Total-P (T-P) (mg/kg)328±461,090±942,192±140-
    Available-P (Av. P2O5) (mg/kg)9.1±1.0123±2258±10300-550Chae et al. (2018)
    Total-S (T-S) (mg/kg)72±25310±10480±24-
    Available-S (Av. S) (SO4)) (mg/kg)60±7111±721±410-100Yoon et al. (1996)

    Table 4 . Initial value of auxiliary indicators.

    Indicator (unit)ValueCommon rangeReference
    Non-cultivated soil (NCS)Maize-cultivated soil (MCS)Soybean-cultivated soil (SCS)
    Available-B (Av. B) (mg/kg)0.28±0.030.38±0.030.16±0.010.2RDA (2010)
    Trace element (mg/kg)
    Al17,21313,35816,008
    CdND*ND*ND*
    Co4.766.19ND*
    Cr3.9914.135.2
    Cu1.8917.415
    Fe24,71522,81023,848
    Mn577640460
    Ni1.8913.224
    Pb13.810.912
    Zn39.94368

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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