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Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021; 54(2): 199-212

Published online April 30, 2021

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Petrological Characteristics and Nondestructive Deterioration Assessments for Foundation Stones of the Sebyeonggwan Hall in Tongyeong, Korea

Doo Roo Han1, Sung Han Kim2, Seok Tae Park3, Chan Hee Lee3,*

1World Heritage Institute Co. Ltd., Gongju, 32574, Korea
2Safety and Disaster Prevention Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon, 34122, Korea
3Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, 32588, Korea

Correspondence to : chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: February 22, 2021; Revised: April 3, 2021; Accepted: April 5, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Sebyeonggwan Hall (National Treasure No. 305) is located on the Naval Headquarter of Three Provinces in Tongyeong, and it has partly undergone with several rebuilding, remodeling, repairing and restorations since it's the first establishment in Joseon Dynasty (AD 1605) of ancient Korea. This study focuses on 50 foundation stones that comprise the Sebyeonggwan. These stones are made of six rock types and currently have various shapes of the surface damages. As the foundation stones, the dominant rock type was dacitic lapilli tuffs, and provenance-based interpretation was performed to supply alternative stones for conservation. Most of the provenance rocks for foundation stones showed highly homogeneity with their corresponding stones of petrography, mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility. According to surface deterioration assessments, the most serious damages of the stones were blistering and scaling. The deterioration mechanism was identified through the analysis of inorganic contaminants, and the primary reason is considered salt weathering caused by sea breeze and other combined circumstances. Based on the mechanical durability of the stones, there was no foundation stone that required the replacement of its members attributed to the degradation of the rock properties, but conservation treatment is considered necessary to delay superficial damage. The foundation stones are characterized by a combined outcome of multiple petrological factors that caused physical damage to surfaces and internal defects. Therefore, it’s required to diagnosis and monitoring the Sebyeonggwan regularly for long-term preservation.

Keywords Sebyeonggwan Hall, foundation stones, dacitic lapilli tuff, provenance interpretation, salt weathering

통영 세병관 초석의 암석학적 특성 및 비파괴 손상평가

한두루1 · 김성한2 · 박석태3 · 이찬희3,*

1주식회사 세계유산연구원 2국립문화재연구소 안전방재연구실, 3공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

요 약

세병관(국보 제305호)은 통영 삼도수군통제영에 위치하며, 1605년에 창건한 이래 최근까지 수차례의 중건, 중수, 보수 및 복원을 거쳤다. 연구대상인 세병관 초석은 모두 50개로 다양한 표면손상이 나타난다. 이 초석은 총 6개의 암종으로 구성되어 있으며, 대부분은 석영안산암질 래피리 응회암이다. 보수용 대체석 수급을 위한 산지해석 결과, 대부분의 암석은 초석과 산출상태, 기재적, 광물학적 및 전암대자율 등 암석학적으로 높은 동질성을 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 초석의 손상유형 중에는 표면의 박리와 박락이 가장 심한 것으로 나타났으며, 무기오염물 분석을 통한 손상메커니즘으로 볼 때 해풍 및 복합적인 환경에 의한 염풍화가 주된 원인으로 판단된다. 초석의 기계적 내구성으로 보아 현재 물성 저하로 부재의 교체가 필요한 것은 없으나 표면적인 손상을 늦추기 위한 보존처리가 필요할 것으로 보인다. 이 초석은 표면에 발생한 물리적 손상과 내부 결함을 유발하는 암석학적 요인이 복합적으로 작용하였다. 따라서 세병관의 장기적 보존을 위해서는 주기적인 상태 진단과 모니터링이 요구된다.

주요어 세병관, 초석, 석영안산암질 래피리 응회암, 산지해석, 염풍화

Article

Research Paper

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021; 54(2): 199-212

Published online April 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Petrological Characteristics and Nondestructive Deterioration Assessments for Foundation Stones of the Sebyeonggwan Hall in Tongyeong, Korea

Doo Roo Han1, Sung Han Kim2, Seok Tae Park3, Chan Hee Lee3,*

1World Heritage Institute Co. Ltd., Gongju, 32574, Korea
2Safety and Disaster Prevention Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon, 34122, Korea
3Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, 32588, Korea

Correspondence to:chanlee@kongju.ac.kr

Received: February 22, 2021; Revised: April 3, 2021; Accepted: April 5, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Sebyeonggwan Hall (National Treasure No. 305) is located on the Naval Headquarter of Three Provinces in Tongyeong, and it has partly undergone with several rebuilding, remodeling, repairing and restorations since it's the first establishment in Joseon Dynasty (AD 1605) of ancient Korea. This study focuses on 50 foundation stones that comprise the Sebyeonggwan. These stones are made of six rock types and currently have various shapes of the surface damages. As the foundation stones, the dominant rock type was dacitic lapilli tuffs, and provenance-based interpretation was performed to supply alternative stones for conservation. Most of the provenance rocks for foundation stones showed highly homogeneity with their corresponding stones of petrography, mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility. According to surface deterioration assessments, the most serious damages of the stones were blistering and scaling. The deterioration mechanism was identified through the analysis of inorganic contaminants, and the primary reason is considered salt weathering caused by sea breeze and other combined circumstances. Based on the mechanical durability of the stones, there was no foundation stone that required the replacement of its members attributed to the degradation of the rock properties, but conservation treatment is considered necessary to delay superficial damage. The foundation stones are characterized by a combined outcome of multiple petrological factors that caused physical damage to surfaces and internal defects. Therefore, it’s required to diagnosis and monitoring the Sebyeonggwan regularly for long-term preservation.

Keywords Sebyeonggwan Hall, foundation stones, dacitic lapilli tuff, provenance interpretation, salt weathering

통영 세병관 초석의 암석학적 특성 및 비파괴 손상평가

한두루1 · 김성한2 · 박석태3 · 이찬희3,*

1주식회사 세계유산연구원 2국립문화재연구소 안전방재연구실, 3공주대학교 문화재보존과학과

Received: February 22, 2021; Revised: April 3, 2021; Accepted: April 5, 2021

요 약

세병관(국보 제305호)은 통영 삼도수군통제영에 위치하며, 1605년에 창건한 이래 최근까지 수차례의 중건, 중수, 보수 및 복원을 거쳤다. 연구대상인 세병관 초석은 모두 50개로 다양한 표면손상이 나타난다. 이 초석은 총 6개의 암종으로 구성되어 있으며, 대부분은 석영안산암질 래피리 응회암이다. 보수용 대체석 수급을 위한 산지해석 결과, 대부분의 암석은 초석과 산출상태, 기재적, 광물학적 및 전암대자율 등 암석학적으로 높은 동질성을 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 초석의 손상유형 중에는 표면의 박리와 박락이 가장 심한 것으로 나타났으며, 무기오염물 분석을 통한 손상메커니즘으로 볼 때 해풍 및 복합적인 환경에 의한 염풍화가 주된 원인으로 판단된다. 초석의 기계적 내구성으로 보아 현재 물성 저하로 부재의 교체가 필요한 것은 없으나 표면적인 손상을 늦추기 위한 보존처리가 필요할 것으로 보인다. 이 초석은 표면에 발생한 물리적 손상과 내부 결함을 유발하는 암석학적 요인이 복합적으로 작용하였다. 따라서 세병관의 장기적 보존을 위해서는 주기적인 상태 진단과 모니터링이 요구된다.

주요어 세병관, 초석, 석영안산암질 래피리 응회암, 산지해석, 염풍화

    Fig 1.

    Figure 1.Current states and distribution of the rock types for foundation stones according to locations in the Sebyeonggwan Hall. (A) Frontal view of the Sebyeonggwan Hall. (B) Outer foundation stones. (C) Inner foundation stones. (D) Rock types showing the schematic floor plan of foundation stones.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 2.

    Figure 2.Results showing the occurrences, polarization microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analysis of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall. Ch; chlorite, M; mica group minerals, P; plagioclase, Q; quartz, K; alkali feldspar, Px; pyroxene, Hb; hornblende. Numbers of the rock samples are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 3.

    Figure 3.Results showing the occurrences, polarization microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analysis of rock samples from the presumed provenance area for foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall. Ch; chlorite, M; mica group minerals, P; plagioclase, Q; quartz, K; alkali feldspar, Px; pyroxene. Numbers of the rock samples are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 4.

    Figure 4.Magnetic susceptibility of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall and the rocks from their presumed provenance. Numbers of the rock samples are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 5.

    Figure 5.The TAS diagram (Le Maitre et al., 2002) showing the samples of foundation stones and rocks for presumed provenance area in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 6.

    Figure 6.Variation diagram showing the geochemical behavior of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall and the rocks from their presumed provenance. Numbers of the rock samples are the same as those of Table 1.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 7.

    Figure 7.Representative photographs showing the major damages and the deterioration map of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 8.

    Figure 8.Diagram showing the total deterioration rates by location and rock type of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 9.

    Figure 9.Photographs showing the detection of blistering zone through the infrared thermal images and temperatures of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 10.

    Figure 10.Diagrams showing the mean contents of Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe on the surface contaminants of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 11.

    Figure 11.Microphotographs and spots showing the SEM-EDS analysis for the surface contaminants on foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall. (A, B) Samples with brown discoloration through the external surface area of dacitic lapilli tuff. (C) Samples of black discoloration. (D) Samples of foreign substances of the Gomagi. (E) Samples with white discoloration in the internal surface area of dacitic lapilli tuff. (F) Samples of repairing materials.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 12.

    Figure 12.Result showing the 2D modeling by ultrasonic velocity of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall. Numbers of the rocks are the same as those of Figure 1D.
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Fig 13.

    Figure 13.Distribution diagrams showing the weathering grades and graph on the weathering index of each rock types according to ultrasonic velocity of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall. FR; fresh, SW; slightly weathered, MW; moderately weathered, HW; highly weathered, CW; completely weathered
    Economic and Environmental Geology 2021; 54: 199-212https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2021.54.2.199

    Table 1 . Sample names and rock types of foundation stones and rocks for presumed provenance area in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.

    Sample No.Rock TypeLocationGPS Coordinates
    TS-1Dacitic Lapilli TuffSebyeonggwan HallN34°84′77′4″, E128°42′31′5″
    TS-2Basaltic Welded TuffSebyeonggwan HallN34°84′77′4″, E128°42′31′5″
    TS-3Andesitic Welded TuffSebyeonggwan HallN34°84′77′4″, E128°42′31′5″
    TS-4Basaltic AndesiteSebyeonggwan HallN34°84′77′4″, E128°42′31′5″
    TS-5RhyoliteSebyeonggwan HallN34°84′77′4″, E128°42′31′5″
    TS-6DioriteSebyeonggwan HallN34°84′77′4″, E128°42′31′5″
    TSS-1Dacitic Lapilli TuffHwawonsa TempleN34°84′64′7″, E128°40′60′7″
    TSS-2Dacitic Welded TuffGyeongsang National UniversityN34°84′90′1″, E128°42′23′4″
    TSS-3Andesitic Welded TuffHwawonsa TempleN34°84′64′7″, E128°40′60′7″
    TSS-4Basaltic AndesiteBackside of Sebyeonggwan HallN34°83′74′4″, E128°40′29′4″

    Table 2 . Comprehensive deterioration rate of foundation stones by locations in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.

    LocationIndexDeterioration Rate (%)
    CrackBlisteringScalingBreak outBlack discoloredBrown discoloredWhite discoloredRestoration materialDeposit
    Outside of outer member5.824.811.0-0.910.20.08.40.9
    Inside of outer member1.06.8--0.18.20.9-0.7
    Inner member2.58.51.1-0.517.53.30.20.1
    Total5.011.42.8-0.514.42.21.80.4

    Table 3 . Comprehensive deterioration rate of foundation stones by rock types in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.

    Rock TypeIndexDeterioration Rate (%)
    CrackBlisteringScalingBreak outBlack discoloredBrown discoloredWhite discoloredRestoration materialDeposit
    Dacitic Lapilli Tuff5.414.63.7-0.417.12.91.70.3
    Basaltic Welded tuff0.31.1--0.6--7.7-
    Andesitic Welded tuff0.96.7---6.10.58.30.9
    Basaltic Andesite0.52.40.70.10.438.9-3.13.6
    Rhyolite--1.6-9.9----
    Diorite-0.7-------

    Table 4 . Results on element contents (ppm) using P-XRF for surface contaminants of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.

    ClassificationCaTiMnFe
    Fresh spot32,8663,83580640,128
    Brown discolored35,3665,6671,45761,814
    Black discolored16,8083,79723,30726,317
    Restoration material57,8365,2101,93023,012
    Deposit188,8502,89071323,127

    Table 5 . Results on element contents (wt.%) using SEM-EDS for surface contaminants of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.

    No.SiAlTiMnCaNaMgFeKClSCO
    111.706.110.31-5.653.561.212.421.011.161.7613.3051.81
    210.986.020.23-4.334.831.141.660.611.242.2916.2150.46
    36.395.150.9413.966.79-0.395.330.920.380.378.5950.79
    43.421.12--29.400.562.02--0.210.5620.2342.48
    52.101.53--15.14--0.280.62-10.734.4565.15
    615.550.91--1.54-11.830.37-0.20-23.4046.20

    Numbers are the same as those of Figure 11..


    Table 6 . Summary on ultrasonic velocity of foundation stones in the Sebyeonggwan Hall.

    ClassificationDirect Ultrasonic Velocity (㎧)Weathering
    Coefficient (K)
    Weathering Grade
    MaxMinMean
    Dacitic Lapilli Tuff3,8802,8383,3850.32MW
    Basaltic Welded Tuff3,7863,7313,7580.25MW
    Andesitic Welded Tuff4,0083,2333,7670.25MW
    Basaltic Andesite4,3623,1413,9900.20MW
    Rhyolite--4,1120.18SW
    Diorite4,4803,9144,2480.15SW

    MW; moderately weathered, SW; slightly weathered.


    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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