search for


Evaluation of Stability and Deterioration Characteristics for the Rock-carved Standing Buddha Triad in Gyeongju Seoak-dong, Korea
경주 서악동 마애여래삼존입상의 손상특성 및 안정성 평가
Econ. Environ. Geol. 2021 Feb;54(1):137-50
Published online February 28, 2021;
Copyright © 2021 the Korean society of economic and environmental gelology.

Chan Hee Lee1,*, Myoungju Choie2
이찬희1,* · 최명주2

1Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea
2Conservation Science Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 34122, Republic of Korea
1공주대학교 문화재보존과학과 2국립문화재연구소 보존과학연구실
Received January 22, 2021; Revised February 10, 2021; Accepted February 11, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The rock-carved standing Buddha triad in Seoak-dong is a large stone Buddha statue of the Unified Silla era (AD 676 to 935) in ancient Korea, built near the top of the southeastern side of mountain Seondosan in Gyeongju, is characterized by its locational importance, the powerful Amitabha and the gentle sculptural technique of the Bodhisattva. In particular, Amitabha Buddha in andesite rock slope with biotite granite pedestal and two Bodhisattva parallel made by alkali granites seems to express the dignity through the color and texture of the stones. In the Amitabha Buddha, deterioration characteristics are accelerating due to the combination of various joint systems, instability of the slopes and relaxation by the root pressure of plants occurring at the top. In addition, physical properties have deteriorated owing to the increase of discontinuous surfaces as joints, cracks and scalings, and the coverage of algae and lichen is also high. Therefore, deterioration degree in Buddha triad is accelerated due to the physical weathering characteristics from natural rock mass and various biological invasion.
Keywords : Rock-carved standing Buddha triad, slope stability, deterioration characteristics, biological invasion


February 2021, 54 (1)