Econ. Environ. Geol. 2012; 45(3): 317-333

Published online June 30, 2012

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Sequence Stratigraphy of the Yeongweol Group (Cambrian-Ordovician), Taebaeksan Basin, Korea: Paleogeographic Implications

Y.K. Kwon*

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to :

Y.K. Kwon

kyk70@kigam.re.kr

Received: May 24, 2012; Accepted: June 11, 2012

Abstract

The Yeongweol Group is a Lower Paleozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequence in the Taebaeksan Basin of Korea, and consists of five lithologic formations: Sambangsan, Machari, Wagok, Mungok, and Yeongheung in ascending order. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the group indicates that initial flooding in the Yeongweol area of the Taebaeksan Basin resulted in basal siliciclastic-dominated sequences of the Sambangsan Formation during the Middle Cambrian. The accelerated sea-level rise in the late Middle to early Late Cambrian generated a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic slope or deep ramp sequence of shale, grainstone and breccia intercalations, representing the lower part of the Machari Formation. Thecontinued rise of sea level in the Late Cambrian made substantial accommodation space and activated subtidal carbonate factory, forming carbonate-dominated subtidal platform sequence in the middle and upper parts of the Machari Formation. The overlying Wagok Formation might originally be a ramp carbonate sequence of subtidal ribbon carbonates and marls with conglomerates, deposited during the normal rise of relative sea level in the late Late Cambrian. The formation was affected by unstable dolomitization shortly after the deposition during the relative sea-level fall in the latest Cambrian or
earliest Ordovician. Subsequently, it was extensively dolomitized under the deep burial diagenetic condition. During the Early Ordovician (Tremadocian), global transgression (viz. Sauk) was continued, and subtidal ramp deposition was sustained in the Yeongweol platform, forming the Mungok Formation. The formation is overlain by the peritidal carbonates of the Yeongheung Formation, and is stacked by cyclic sedimentation during the Early to Middle Ordovician (Arenigian to Caradocian). The lithologic change from subtidal ramp to peritidal facies is preserved at the uppermost part of the Mungok Formation. The transition between Sauk and Tippecanoe sequences is recognized within the middle part of the Yeongheung Formation as a minimum accommodation zone. The global eustatic fall in the earliest Middle Ordovician and the ensuing rise of relative sea level during the Darrwillian to Caradocian produced broadly-prograding peritidal carbonates of shallowing-upward cyclic successions within the Yeongheung Formation. The reconstructed relative sea-level curve of the Yeongweol platform is very similar to that of the Taebaek platform. This reveals that the Yeongweol platform experienced same tectonic movements with the Taebaek platform, and consequently that both platform sequences might be located in a body or somewhere separately in the margin of the North China platform. The significant differences in lithologic and stratigraphic successions imply that the Yeongweol platform was much far from the Taebaek platform and not associated with the Taebaek platform as a single depositional system. The Yeongweol platform was probably located in relatively open shallow marine environments, whereas the Taebaek platform was a part of the restricted embayments. During the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic amalgamations of the Korean massifs, the Yeongweol platform was probably pushed against the Taebaek platform by the complex movement, forming fragmented platform sequences of the Taebaeksan Basin.

Keywords paleogeography, Yeongweol group, Taebaek group, Taebaeksan Basin, sequence stratigraphy

Article

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2012; 45(3): 317-333

Published online June 30, 2012

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Sequence Stratigraphy of the Yeongweol Group (Cambrian-Ordovician), Taebaeksan Basin, Korea: Paleogeographic Implications

Y.K. Kwon*

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:

Y.K. Kwon

kyk70@kigam.re.kr

Received: May 24, 2012; Accepted: June 11, 2012

Abstract

The Yeongweol Group is a Lower Paleozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequence in the Taebaeksan Basin of Korea, and consists of five lithologic formations: Sambangsan, Machari, Wagok, Mungok, and Yeongheung in ascending order. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the group indicates that initial flooding in the Yeongweol area of the Taebaeksan Basin resulted in basal siliciclastic-dominated sequences of the Sambangsan Formation during the Middle Cambrian. The accelerated sea-level rise in the late Middle to early Late Cambrian generated a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic slope or deep ramp sequence of shale, grainstone and breccia intercalations, representing the lower part of the Machari Formation. Thecontinued rise of sea level in the Late Cambrian made substantial accommodation space and activated subtidal carbonate factory, forming carbonate-dominated subtidal platform sequence in the middle and upper parts of the Machari Formation. The overlying Wagok Formation might originally be a ramp carbonate sequence of subtidal ribbon carbonates and marls with conglomerates, deposited during the normal rise of relative sea level in the late Late Cambrian. The formation was affected by unstable dolomitization shortly after the deposition during the relative sea-level fall in the latest Cambrian or
earliest Ordovician. Subsequently, it was extensively dolomitized under the deep burial diagenetic condition. During the Early Ordovician (Tremadocian), global transgression (viz. Sauk) was continued, and subtidal ramp deposition was sustained in the Yeongweol platform, forming the Mungok Formation. The formation is overlain by the peritidal carbonates of the Yeongheung Formation, and is stacked by cyclic sedimentation during the Early to Middle Ordovician (Arenigian to Caradocian). The lithologic change from subtidal ramp to peritidal facies is preserved at the uppermost part of the Mungok Formation. The transition between Sauk and Tippecanoe sequences is recognized within the middle part of the Yeongheung Formation as a minimum accommodation zone. The global eustatic fall in the earliest Middle Ordovician and the ensuing rise of relative sea level during the Darrwillian to Caradocian produced broadly-prograding peritidal carbonates of shallowing-upward cyclic successions within the Yeongheung Formation. The reconstructed relative sea-level curve of the Yeongweol platform is very similar to that of the Taebaek platform. This reveals that the Yeongweol platform experienced same tectonic movements with the Taebaek platform, and consequently that both platform sequences might be located in a body or somewhere separately in the margin of the North China platform. The significant differences in lithologic and stratigraphic successions imply that the Yeongweol platform was much far from the Taebaek platform and not associated with the Taebaek platform as a single depositional system. The Yeongweol platform was probably located in relatively open shallow marine environments, whereas the Taebaek platform was a part of the restricted embayments. During the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic amalgamations of the Korean massifs, the Yeongweol platform was probably pushed against the Taebaek platform by the complex movement, forming fragmented platform sequences of the Taebaeksan Basin.

Keywords paleogeography, Yeongweol group, Taebaek group, Taebaeksan Basin, sequence stratigraphy

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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