Econ. Environ. Geol. 2003; 36(3): 159-170

Published online June 30, 2003

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

The Effects of pH Change in Extraction Solution on the Heavy Metals Extraction from Soil and Controversial Points for Partial Extraction in Korean Standard Method

Chang Whan Oh1*, Youn Hee Yu1, Pyeong Koo Lee2 and Young Up Lee1

1Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Chonbuk National University
2Div. of Geological & Envirommental Hazards, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

Correspondence to :

Chang Whan Oh

ocwhan@moak.chonbuk.ac.kr

Received: September 27, 2002; Accepted: April 21, 2003

Abstract

Heavy metals are extracted from Chonju stream sediment, roadside soils and sediments along Honam expressway, soils and tailings from mining area using three different methods (partial extraction in Standard Method, partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution and Sequential Extraction Method). In samples having buffer capacity against acid, pH 1 (0.1 N HCl) of extraction solution can not be maintained and pH of extraction solution increases up to 8.0 when partial extraction in Standard Method is used. The averages and ranges of HPE(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction in Standard Method)/HPEM(heavy metals extracted using
partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution) values are 0.479 and 0.1450.929 for Cd, 0.534 and 0.0780.928 for Zn, 0.432 and 0.0410.992 for Mn, 0.359 and 0.0110.874 for Cu, 0.150 and 0.0180.530 for Cr, 0.219 and 0.0030.853 for Pb, and 0.088 and 1.73´10-50.303 for Fe. These data indicate that the difference between HPE and HPEM is large in the order of Fe, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Zn. The amounts of heavy metals extracted decreases in the follow order; Sum III (sum of fraction I, II, III in sequential extraction)>HPEM>Sum III (sum of fraction I and II)>HPE for Zn, Cd and Mn and Sum III>HPEM>HPE for Cr and Fe. In the case Cr, Sum II is lower than HPEM and higher than HPE. In case of Cu, extracted heavy metals is large in the order Sum IV>HPEM> Sum III≡HPE. HPE/HPEM value decreases with increasing the amount of HCl used formaintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution. For samples with high buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value in all elements is lower than 0.2. On the other hand, for samples with low buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value are over 0.2 and many samples have values higher than 0.6 for Zn, Cd Mn and Cu due to the small difference between Sum II and Sum III, and relatively higher mobility. However, for Fe and Cr, HPE/HPEM value is below 0.2 even for samples with low buffer capacity due to their low mobility and big difference between Sum II and Sum III. This study indicates that the partial extraction method in Korean Standard Method of soil is not suitable for an assessment of soil contamination in area where buffer capacity of soil can be decreased or lost because of a long term exposure to environmental damage such as acidic rain.

Keywords Partial extraction, Standard Method, 0.1 N extraction solution, sequential extraction, buffer capacity

Article

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2003; 36(3): 159-170

Published online June 30, 2003

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

The Effects of pH Change in Extraction Solution on the Heavy Metals Extraction from Soil and Controversial Points for Partial Extraction in Korean Standard Method

Chang Whan Oh1*, Youn Hee Yu1, Pyeong Koo Lee2 and Young Up Lee1

1Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Chonbuk National University
2Div. of Geological & Envirommental Hazards, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

Correspondence to:

Chang Whan Oh

ocwhan@moak.chonbuk.ac.kr

Received: September 27, 2002; Accepted: April 21, 2003

Abstract

Heavy metals are extracted from Chonju stream sediment, roadside soils and sediments along Honam expressway, soils and tailings from mining area using three different methods (partial extraction in Standard Method, partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution and Sequential Extraction Method). In samples having buffer capacity against acid, pH 1 (0.1 N HCl) of extraction solution can not be maintained and pH of extraction solution increases up to 8.0 when partial extraction in Standard Method is used. The averages and ranges of HPE(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction in Standard Method)/HPEM(heavy metals extracted using
partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution) values are 0.479 and 0.1450.929 for Cd, 0.534 and 0.0780.928 for Zn, 0.432 and 0.0410.992 for Mn, 0.359 and 0.0110.874 for Cu, 0.150 and 0.0180.530 for Cr, 0.219 and 0.0030.853 for Pb, and 0.088 and 1.73´10-50.303 for Fe. These data indicate that the difference between HPE and HPEM is large in the order of Fe, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Zn. The amounts of heavy metals extracted decreases in the follow order; Sum III (sum of fraction I, II, III in sequential extraction)>HPEM>Sum III (sum of fraction I and II)>HPE for Zn, Cd and Mn and Sum III>HPEM>HPE for Cr and Fe. In the case Cr, Sum II is lower than HPEM and higher than HPE. In case of Cu, extracted heavy metals is large in the order Sum IV>HPEM> Sum III≡HPE. HPE/HPEM value decreases with increasing the amount of HCl used formaintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution. For samples with high buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value in all elements is lower than 0.2. On the other hand, for samples with low buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value are over 0.2 and many samples have values higher than 0.6 for Zn, Cd Mn and Cu due to the small difference between Sum II and Sum III, and relatively higher mobility. However, for Fe and Cr, HPE/HPEM value is below 0.2 even for samples with low buffer capacity due to their low mobility and big difference between Sum II and Sum III. This study indicates that the partial extraction method in Korean Standard Method of soil is not suitable for an assessment of soil contamination in area where buffer capacity of soil can be decreased or lost because of a long term exposure to environmental damage such as acidic rain.

Keywords Partial extraction, Standard Method, 0.1 N extraction solution, sequential extraction, buffer capacity

    KSEEG
    Jun 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.3, pp. 281~352

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