Econ. Environ. Geol. 2003; 36(5): 375-380

Published online October 31, 2003

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Enhanced Bioremediation of Phenanthrene Using Biosurfactant

Kyung-Hee Shin and Kyoung-Woong Kim*

Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju 500-712, Korea

Correspondence to :

Kyoung-Woong Kim

kwkim@kjist.ac.kr

Received: May 22, 2003; Accepted: October 11, 2003

Abstract

This study was carried out 1) to investigate the pH effect on solubilization of phenanthrene by biosurfactant in aqueous system and 2) to evaluate the pH effect on the biodegradation rate of phenanthrene in the presence and the absence of the biosurfactant by phenanthrene degraders. Tween 80, which is a chemically synthesized surfactant, showed greater solubilizing capacity than rhamnolipid. The solubilization capacity can be expressed as a MSR(molar solubilization ratio=moles of organic compounds solubilized per mole of surfactant). The calculated MSR of Tween 80 and rhamnolipid were 0.1449 and 0.0425 respectively. The kinetic study of phenanthrene solubilization by rhamnolipid showed that solubilization mechanism could reach equilibrium within 24 hours. Addition of 240 ppm rhamnolipid solution, which concentration is 4.3 times of Critical Micelle Concentration(CMC), caused 9 times solubility enhancement compared to water solubility. The highest solubilities were detected around a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Changes in apparent solubility with the changes in pH are possibly related to the fact that the rhamnolipid, an anionic surfactant, can form different structures depending on the pH. Two biodegradation experiments were performed in the absence and the presence of rhamnolipid, with the cell growth investigated using a spread plate method. The specific growth rates at pH 6 and 7 were higher than at the other pH, and the HPLC analysis data, for the total phenanthrene loss, confirmed the trends in the μ(specific growth rate) values. In presence of rhamnolipid, maximum μ values shifted from around pH 5 which showed maximum enhancement of solubility in the abiotic experiment, compared to the μ values obtained without the biosurfactant. In this study, the increase in the observed specific grow rate(1.44 times) was not as high as the increase in solubilization(5 times). This was supported by the fact all the solubilized phenanthrene is not bioavailable to microorganisms.

Keywords Biosurfactant; pH; Solubilization; Biodegradation; Phenanthrene

Article

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2003; 36(5): 375-380

Published online October 31, 2003

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Enhanced Bioremediation of Phenanthrene Using Biosurfactant

Kyung-Hee Shin and Kyoung-Woong Kim*

Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju 500-712, Korea

Correspondence to:

Kyoung-Woong Kim

kwkim@kjist.ac.kr

Received: May 22, 2003; Accepted: October 11, 2003

Abstract

This study was carried out 1) to investigate the pH effect on solubilization of phenanthrene by biosurfactant in aqueous system and 2) to evaluate the pH effect on the biodegradation rate of phenanthrene in the presence and the absence of the biosurfactant by phenanthrene degraders. Tween 80, which is a chemically synthesized surfactant, showed greater solubilizing capacity than rhamnolipid. The solubilization capacity can be expressed as a MSR(molar solubilization ratio=moles of organic compounds solubilized per mole of surfactant). The calculated MSR of Tween 80 and rhamnolipid were 0.1449 and 0.0425 respectively. The kinetic study of phenanthrene solubilization by rhamnolipid showed that solubilization mechanism could reach equilibrium within 24 hours. Addition of 240 ppm rhamnolipid solution, which concentration is 4.3 times of Critical Micelle Concentration(CMC), caused 9 times solubility enhancement compared to water solubility. The highest solubilities were detected around a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Changes in apparent solubility with the changes in pH are possibly related to the fact that the rhamnolipid, an anionic surfactant, can form different structures depending on the pH. Two biodegradation experiments were performed in the absence and the presence of rhamnolipid, with the cell growth investigated using a spread plate method. The specific growth rates at pH 6 and 7 were higher than at the other pH, and the HPLC analysis data, for the total phenanthrene loss, confirmed the trends in the μ(specific growth rate) values. In presence of rhamnolipid, maximum μ values shifted from around pH 5 which showed maximum enhancement of solubility in the abiotic experiment, compared to the μ values obtained without the biosurfactant. In this study, the increase in the observed specific grow rate(1.44 times) was not as high as the increase in solubilization(5 times). This was supported by the fact all the solubilized phenanthrene is not bioavailable to microorganisms.

Keywords Biosurfactant; pH; Solubilization; Biodegradation; Phenanthrene

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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