Econ. Environ. Geol. 2012; 45(5): 487-502

Published online October 31, 2012

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Mineral Composition and Grain Size Distribution of Fault Rock from Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju City, Korea

Su Jeong Song1, Chang Oh Choo1, Chun-Joong Chang2, Tae Woo Chang1 and Yun Deuk Jang1*

1Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea
2KHNP Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. Korea

Correspondence to :

Yun Deuk Jang

jangyd@knu.ac.kr

Received: March 14, 2012; Accepted: October 2, 2012

Abstract

This paper is focused on mineral compositions, microstructures and distributional characters of remained grains in the fault rocks collected from a fault developed in Yongdang-ri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju City, Korea, using Xray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope, laser grain size analysis and fractal dimension analysis methods. The exposed fault core zone is about 1.5 meter thick. On the average, the breccia zone is 1.2 meter and the gouge zone is 20cm thick, respectively. XRD results show that the breccia zone consists predominantly of rock-forming minerals including quartz and feldspar, but the gouge zone consists of abundant clay minerals such as chlorite, illite and kaolinite. Mineral vein, pyrite and altered minerals commonly observed in the fault rock support evidence of fault activity associated with hydrothermal alteration. Fractal dimensions based on box counting, image analysis and laser particle analysis suggest that mineral grains in the fault rock underwent fracturing process as well as abrasion that gave rise to diminution of grains during the fault activity. Fractal dimensions(D-values) calculated by three methods gradually increase from the breccia zone to the gouge zone which has commonly high D-values. There are no noticeable changes in D-values in the gouge zone with trend being constant. It means that the bulk-crushing process of mineral grains in the breccia zone was predominant, whereas abrasion of mineral grains in the gouge zone took place by continuous fault activity. It means that the bulk-crushing process of mineral grains in the breccia zone was predominant, whereas abrasion of mineral grains in the gouge zone took place by continuous fault activity. Mineral compositions in the fault zone and peculiar trends in grain distribution indicate that multiple fault activity had a considerable influence on the evolution of fault zones, together with hydrothermal alteration. Meanwhile, fractal dimension values(D) in the fault rock should be used with caution because there is possibility that different values are unexpectedly obtained depending on the measurement methods available even in the same sample.

Keywords fault rock, fault gouge, fault mineral, fractal dimension, hydrothermal alteration

Article

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2012; 45(5): 487-502

Published online October 31, 2012

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Mineral Composition and Grain Size Distribution of Fault Rock from Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju City, Korea

Su Jeong Song1, Chang Oh Choo1, Chun-Joong Chang2, Tae Woo Chang1 and Yun Deuk Jang1*

1Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea
2KHNP Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. Korea

Correspondence to:

Yun Deuk Jang

jangyd@knu.ac.kr

Received: March 14, 2012; Accepted: October 2, 2012

Abstract

This paper is focused on mineral compositions, microstructures and distributional characters of remained grains in the fault rocks collected from a fault developed in Yongdang-ri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju City, Korea, using Xray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope, laser grain size analysis and fractal dimension analysis methods. The exposed fault core zone is about 1.5 meter thick. On the average, the breccia zone is 1.2 meter and the gouge zone is 20cm thick, respectively. XRD results show that the breccia zone consists predominantly of rock-forming minerals including quartz and feldspar, but the gouge zone consists of abundant clay minerals such as chlorite, illite and kaolinite. Mineral vein, pyrite and altered minerals commonly observed in the fault rock support evidence of fault activity associated with hydrothermal alteration. Fractal dimensions based on box counting, image analysis and laser particle analysis suggest that mineral grains in the fault rock underwent fracturing process as well as abrasion that gave rise to diminution of grains during the fault activity. Fractal dimensions(D-values) calculated by three methods gradually increase from the breccia zone to the gouge zone which has commonly high D-values. There are no noticeable changes in D-values in the gouge zone with trend being constant. It means that the bulk-crushing process of mineral grains in the breccia zone was predominant, whereas abrasion of mineral grains in the gouge zone took place by continuous fault activity. It means that the bulk-crushing process of mineral grains in the breccia zone was predominant, whereas abrasion of mineral grains in the gouge zone took place by continuous fault activity. Mineral compositions in the fault zone and peculiar trends in grain distribution indicate that multiple fault activity had a considerable influence on the evolution of fault zones, together with hydrothermal alteration. Meanwhile, fractal dimension values(D) in the fault rock should be used with caution because there is possibility that different values are unexpectedly obtained depending on the measurement methods available even in the same sample.

Keywords fault rock, fault gouge, fault mineral, fractal dimension, hydrothermal alteration

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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