Original Article

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2018; 51(1): 27-38

Published online February 28, 2018

https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2018.51.1.27

© THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Groundwater from Aquifers Composed of Different Geological Settings in Ganghwa Island

Ikhyun Kim1, MoonSu Kim1*, Se-Yeong Hamm2, Hyunkoo Kim1, Dongsoo Kim1, Seongjin Jo1, Heonmin Lee1, Jongyeon Hwang1, Hunje Jo1, Sunhwa Park1 and Hyenmi Chung1

1National Institute of Environmental Research
2Dept. of Geological Sciences, Pusan National University

Correspondence to : hyd009@korea.kr

Received: February 5, 2018; Accepted: February 27, 2018

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Groundwaters in different rock types (Mesozoic granite, Precambrian gneiss, and schist) of Ganghwa island, Incheon City were characterized by using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and hydrogeochemical constituents. For the study, groundwater samples from 69 wells had been collected over eight years. Statistical methods were applied to relate hydrogeochemical components and NORM in the groundwater samples. The groundwater samples belonged to Ca(Na)-HCO3 types. The uranium concentrations in three groundwater samples exceeded 30 ug/L of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). The radon concentrations in 28 groundwater samples exceeded 4,000 pCi/L (picocuries per Liter) of US EPA alternative maximum contaminant level (AMCL). Gross-alpha in all the groundwater samples did not exceed 15 pCi/L of US EPA MCL. The average concentrations of uranium and radon in groundwater were the highest in granite area, and then gneiss, schist areas in order. In schist area, the correlation coefficient (R) between radon and HCO3 is –0.40 and R between uranium and SO4 is 0.54. In gneiss area, the R between radon and uranium is 0.55 and the R between uranium and SO4 is 0.41. According to factor analysis, each geological area shows different chemical characteristics. The statistical analysis of whole groundwater resulted in nearly no significant relationship among uranium, radon and chemical constituents. Subsequently, more detailed studies on hydrogeological, geochemical, and geological characteristics related to NORM are required to better understand the behavior and fate of NORM.

Keywords naturally occurring radioactive materials, groundwater, geological setting, statistical analysis, factor analysis

강화도의 지질별 지하수 중 자연방사성 물질의 특성

김익현1 ·김문수1* ·함세영2 ·김현구1 ·김동수1 ·조성진1 ·이헌민1 ·황종연1 ·조훈제1 ·박선화1 ·정현미1

1국립환경과학원, 2부산대학교 지질환경과학과

요 약

Article

Original Article

Econ. Environ. Geol. 2018; 51(1): 27-38

Published online February 28, 2018 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2018.51.1.27

Copyright © THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.

Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Groundwater from Aquifers Composed of Different Geological Settings in Ganghwa Island

Ikhyun Kim1, MoonSu Kim1*, Se-Yeong Hamm2, Hyunkoo Kim1, Dongsoo Kim1, Seongjin Jo1, Heonmin Lee1, Jongyeon Hwang1, Hunje Jo1, Sunhwa Park1 and Hyenmi Chung1

1National Institute of Environmental Research
2Dept. of Geological Sciences, Pusan National University

Correspondence to:hyd009@korea.kr

Received: February 5, 2018; Accepted: February 27, 2018

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Groundwaters in different rock types (Mesozoic granite, Precambrian gneiss, and schist) of Ganghwa island, Incheon City were characterized by using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and hydrogeochemical constituents. For the study, groundwater samples from 69 wells had been collected over eight years. Statistical methods were applied to relate hydrogeochemical components and NORM in the groundwater samples. The groundwater samples belonged to Ca(Na)-HCO3 types. The uranium concentrations in three groundwater samples exceeded 30 ug/L of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). The radon concentrations in 28 groundwater samples exceeded 4,000 pCi/L (picocuries per Liter) of US EPA alternative maximum contaminant level (AMCL). Gross-alpha in all the groundwater samples did not exceed 15 pCi/L of US EPA MCL. The average concentrations of uranium and radon in groundwater were the highest in granite area, and then gneiss, schist areas in order. In schist area, the correlation coefficient (R) between radon and HCO3 is –0.40 and R between uranium and SO4 is 0.54. In gneiss area, the R between radon and uranium is 0.55 and the R between uranium and SO4 is 0.41. According to factor analysis, each geological area shows different chemical characteristics. The statistical analysis of whole groundwater resulted in nearly no significant relationship among uranium, radon and chemical constituents. Subsequently, more detailed studies on hydrogeological, geochemical, and geological characteristics related to NORM are required to better understand the behavior and fate of NORM.

Keywords naturally occurring radioactive materials, groundwater, geological setting, statistical analysis, factor analysis

강화도의 지질별 지하수 중 자연방사성 물질의 특성

김익현1 ·김문수1* ·함세영2 ·김현구1 ·김동수1 ·조성진1 ·이헌민1 ·황종연1 ·조훈제1 ·박선화1 ·정현미1

1국립환경과학원, 2부산대학교 지질환경과학과

Received: February 5, 2018; Accepted: February 27, 2018

요 약

    KSEEG
    Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

    Stats or Metrics

    Share this article on

    • kakao talk
    • line

    Related articles in KSEEG

    Economic and Environmental Geology

    pISSN 1225-7281
    eISSN 2288-7962
    qr-code Download