Economic and Environmental Geology

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Summary of experimental conditions for studies of bentonite-alkaline liquid interactions and secondary minerals formed by the interactions

Material Solution Temp.(°C) Time (days) Pressure (atm) Secondary mineral Reference
FEBEX bentonite pH 13.5; 0.17 M Na, 0.33 M K, 4.07 M Ca 35, 60, 90 30-360 1 Na-phillipsite Villa et al. (2001)
pH 13.5 to 10; several tests with Na, Ca, K at different concentrations 30, 60, 90 7-365 1 phillipsite, analcime, Mg-smectite, CSH-gel phases Ramirez et al. (2002)
0.1 M, 0.25 M, 0.5M NaOH + Ca(OH)2 25, 75, 125, 200 30-540 analcime, tobermorite or CSH-gel, gyrolite, phillipsite, saponite Cuevas et al. (2006)
pH 12.9-13.5; 0.1-0.5 M NaOH + Ca(OH)2 25-200 30-540 1 analcime (125-200°C), phillipsite (75°C), gel-CSH (25-125°C), tobermorite (125-200°C), gyrolite (200°C) Sánchez et al. (2006)
pH 13.5; K-Na-OH type 90 chlorite Fernández et al. (2013)
pH 13.4; K-Na-OH-type -175 15 months 1 analcime, K-feldspar, mixed layered illite/smectite Fernández et al. (2014)
MX-80 bentonite pH 13.4; K-Na-OH-type -175 15 months 1 analcime, K-feldspar, mixed layered illite/smectite Fernández et al. (2014)
3 M KOH 35 270 1 illite (+25%) Eberl et al. (1993)
1 M KOH 60, 90, 120 1, 7 1 atm at 60 and 90°C, phillipsite, beidellite Bouchet et al. (2004)
1 M NaOH 60, 90, 120 1, 7 1 atm at 120°C analcime, beidellite
1.0-0.3 M NaOH 23 70 1 beidellite Karnland (2004)
Smectite(Ceca and Ibeco) KOH > 4 M 35 1 initial product: illite (+45%) sequence: mica, phillipsite, K-feldspar, quartz Bauer and Berger (1998)
KOH > 4 M 80 1 initial product: illite (+90%) sequence: mica, phillipsite, K-feldspar, quartz
Montmorillonite + quartz pH 13 to 14; Na-K type 50-170 up to 125 1 analcime Nakayama et al. (2004)
Na–Ca smectite, Na-smectite, Ca-smectite pH 12; NaOH 150 60 5-150 bar no evolution. buffer effect of the final clay pH 9 Mosser-Ruck and Cathelineau (2004)
pH 11.7; 3 M KOH + KCl 150 60 5-150 bar illite/smectite mixed layer, low- and high charge smectite layer, quartz, feldspar
pH 11.7; 1 M K2CO3 150 60 5-150 bar tobermorite (CSH), merlinoite (zeolite)
Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri) pH 13 and 12; NaOH 150, 175, 200 40 1 analcime, vermiculite, Na-rectorite Chermak (1992)
pH 13 and 12; KOH 150, 175, 200 50 1 phillipsite, K-feldspar, K-rectorite Chermak (1993)
GMZ bentonite pH 12-13; degraded by ordinary portland cement 20 55 1 C-S-H gels and analcime Sun et al. (2018)
1 M KOH 35, 80 20-80 1 Kaolinitization Ye et al. (2016)
Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022;55:219-29 https://doi.org/10.9719/EEG.2022.55.3.219
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