Economic and Environmental Geology

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Fig. 4.

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Fig. 4. (a) Conceptual diagram of fault-valve activity, illustrating the dependence of frictional fault failure on the cycling of tectonic shear stress and fluid pressure (after Sibson, 1992c). (b) Fluid pressure fluctuations in fault zone, induced by fault valve and suction pump mechanisms in relation to cyclic earthquake (EQ) episodes. Pl and Ph represent hydrostatic and lithostatic fluid pressures, respectively (adapted from Sibson et al., 1988).
Econ. Environ. Geol. 2022;55:183-95
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