Sung-Ja ChoiEcon. Environ. Geol. 2018; 51(5): 463-471
Abstract : In this paper, we review previous studies on the relative sea-level changes in the Yellow Sea during the Holocene to comprehensive understand the various research results. Currently, it is reported two theories : 1) the Holocene sea-level has never been higher than the present-day level; and 2) sea-level have reached highstand during mid-Holocene, followed by slow lowering to that of the present. The first theory yields a curve that is similar to a climate-change-related eustatic sea-level curve. However, in reality, most of the relative sea-level fluctuation resulted from land uplift or subsidence. The second theory yields a curve that is fairly coincident with a relative sea-level curve indicative of continental margins being located away from the ice sheets(i.e., far-field), and is considered as an effect of GIA(Glacio Isostatic Adjustment) and gravitational attraction. Based on detailed review of previous researches, we realized that they sourced the same papers, but obtained different results because they selectively chose and added the data. The data used to derive the second theory pertain to the northern Gunsan region, which is located within the western area of the Chugaryeong fault. Thus, we believe that the sea-level curve for the second theory is only representative of the area north of Gunsan, which is subject to GIA and tectonic deformation. Although the relative sea-level curve for the west coastal area is comparable to that for the far-field continental margin region, it is necessary to evaluate local tectonic activities as suggested by active seismicity in the west coastal area and the more than 400 faults currently existing in on the Korean Peninsula.
Eun-Young Ahn, Jun-Hee Bae, Ok-Sun Lee and Jae-Wook LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2018; 51(3): 279-289
Abstract : With the launch of the new government in 2017, National Planning and Advisory Committee (NPAC) announced the five-year plan for the government administration and the 100 national tasks. The Ministry of Science and ICT (Information & Communication Technology) (MSIT) and other government agencies issued work plans for 2018, including R&D plans. Analyzing the changes in government policy will be a major task of public research and development institutions. This study analyzed the changes of the R&D policy of the new government and the R&D policy direction and strategic plan of the government departments related to the geoscience and mineral resources in 2018. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) to lead the innovation growth through the 4th industrial revolution, 2) to supply clean energy and to cope with climate change in the environment and energy field, 3) to improve the quality of life through problem solving in the life of the people and disaster prevention. Considering the investment direction of the government, it is necessary to lead the geoscience and mineral resources R&D to solve problems of the society and to grow by the science and technology.
Seong-Yong Kim and Chul-Ho HeoEcon. Environ. Geol. 2018; 51(3): 291-307
Abstract : Australia is the world’s top gold, nickel, iron ore, lead, zinc and uranium, and is ranked in the top five in many other important minerals. Extension to existing resources will continue to support well-established local production. There are perceptions by some that Australia is a mature exploration destination where the easily won near-surface deposits were largely discovered many decades ago. In recent years, Australia faces increasing global competition for investment spending in all jurisdictions in which mineral exploration is encouraged. Many regional communities face the threat of losing their main economic driver as a number of long-term mines are reaching the end of their economic life. However, given the trend of increasing mineral demand due to the 4th industrial revolution, it is considered that Korea is also an opportunity to acquire global competitiveness of geoscience and mining technology by smart and digital mining, and by ICT-convergence technology R&D.
Seonyi Namgung, Chul-Min Chon and Giehyeon LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2017; 50(6): 545-554
Abstract : Birnessite is one of the dominant Mn (oxyhydr)oxide phases commonly found in soil and deep ocean environments. It typically occurs as nano-sized and poorly crystalline aggregates in the natural environment. It is well known that birnessite participates in a wide variety of bio/geochemical reactions as a reactive mineral phase with structural defects, cation vacancies, and mixed valences of structural Mn. These various bio/geochemical reactions control not only the fate and transport of inorganic and organic substances in the environment, but also the formation of diverse Mn (oxyhydr)oxides through birnessite transformation. This review assessed and discussed about the phase transformation of birnessite under a wide range of environmental conditions and about the potential geochemical factors controlling the corresponding reactions in the literature. Birnessite transformation to other types of Mn (oxyhydr)oxides were affected by dissolved Mn(II), dissolved oxygen, solution pH, and co-existing cation (i.e., Mg2+). However, there still have been many issues to be unraveled on the complex bio/geochemical processes involved in the phase transformation of birnessite. Future work on the detail mechanisms of birnessite transformation should be further investigated.
Hyun A Lee, Se-Yeong Hamm and Nam C. WooEcon. Environ. Geol. 2017; 50(5): 401-414
Abstract : To prevent the damages from earthquakes, various researches have been conducted around the world focusing on earthquake prediction and forecasting for several decades. Among various precursory phenomena, changes in groundwater level and quality are considered to be reliable for estimating the time of earthquake occurrence and its magnitude. In effects, some countries impacted by frequent earthquakes have established and operated the groundwater monitoring network for earthquake surveillance and prediction. In Korea, recently researches have begun for using groundwater monitoring techniques for earthquake prediction. In this paper, the groundwater monitoring networks of China, Japan, and the United States were reviewed focusing on the facilities and results of researches to deduce the tasks for earthquake prediction researches using groundwater monitoring techniques in Korea. In results, research needs are suggested in the implementation of groundwater monitoring networks for specifically earthquake surveillance with the real-time monitoring and the measures to quantify the degrees of abnormal changes in the relationship of distance from the earthquake epicenter.
Eun-Young AhnEcon. Environ. Geol. 2017; 50(5): 415-422
Abstract : This study focuses on the sustainable development and intelligence information society, analyzing the results of science and technology forecasts from Korea and Japan for 2040–2050. Future geological environment and disaster technologies are presented, such as base geology, geophysical geological disaster, weather adjustment, CO2 reduction, environmental disaster, and smart ecocity developments. For the future technologies in energy and resources technology, space resources development and nuclear fusion will be realized by 2040 and 2050. Moreover, new material and resource technologies will be applied to replace existing energy and mineral resources by 2040. Japan has introduced intelligent information viewpoints and presented new technologies.
Eun-Young Ahn, Seong-Yong Kim and Jae-Wook LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(4): 325-333
Abstract : The Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) introduced its new Mission Oriented Evaluation System (MOES) for government affiliated research institutes and Government Supported Research Institutes (GSRI) on science and technology in 2013. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) is the first MOES applied Science and Technology (S&T) GSRI, that has research divisions focusing on geoscience and geological surveys, mineral resources extraction and utilization, petroleum extraction and marine mineral research, and geological applied and environment research. In appling the final evaluation of MOES on KIGAM, we found difficulty classifing the concepts of research excellence and risk (innovativeness) in guidelines of Research Evaluation Indicators (REIs) of MSIP. We have developed quantitative and qualitative indicators that can present research excellence and risk (innovativeness) through the KIGAM World Class Laboratory (WCL) strategy and related studies, innovative research and development guidelines of MSIP (2013a) and honorable R&D failure guidelines of MSIP (2013b). We have applied our developed REIs in KIGAM which handles basic research, applied and development research and public services. Therefore, our developed REIs can be effectively applied in every S&T GSRI.
Seok-Jun Yang and Chul-ho HeoEcon. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(3): 193-199
Abstract : Constancia mine is a deposit developed within Andahuaylas-Yauri Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic belt, southeastern Peru and is located in the southwestern part of Abancay deformation zone structurally as the porphyry copper deposit type. Mineralized zone in Constancia mine are composed of leached zone, secondary enrichment zone(ca. 1% Cu), mixed zone, primary mineralized zone(ca. 0.5%), skarn zone(ca. 1.5% Cu) from the upper part. Main country rock is monzonitic porphyry. Leached zone are characterized by the precipitation of limonite and looks brown in the outcrop. Oxidized zone have green due to the occurrence of copper oxide and secondary enrichment zone are characterized by the occurrence of chalcocite. Skarn zone are characterized by the occurrence of magnetite and garnet. Now, Hudbay, Canadian mining company, have 100% share about Constancia mine and started to produce commercially from January, 2015.
Seong-Yong Kim, Jun-Hee Bae, Jae-Wook Lee and Chul-Ho HeoEcon. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(3): 201-212
Abstract : Due to growing problems securing stable mineral and energy resources with international political and economic changes, China has dedicated itself to strategies and policies to enhance its stable mineral and energy resources security. China has established a rare earth elements(REE) industry policy after the abolition of the REE exports quota system. China’s six large REE companies have also been integrated into REE mining, smelting and refining companies. Efforts have been increased to enhance China’s energy security through unconventional oil and gas exploration and development investment, as well as effort in R&D. The country will focus on technology development and exploration to promote commercial production of unconventional oil and gas based on countries with shale gas. China is making long-term contracts and joint ventures to ensure the acquisition of reliable mineral and energy resources from abroad. Government of China has proposed a range of initiatives, such as the integration of resources development strategies and environmental development strategies, internationalization of resource management, supply diversification and advancement, strengthening industry linking strategy, grouping and diversification strategy.
Gwon Woo Park and In-Ju HwangEcon. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(3): 213-224
Abstract : Non-conventional resource and alternative energy were researched for predicting oil peak. In this study, one of many non-conventional resources, specifically oil-sands, was investigated due to the increasing interest of oil-sands plant modularization in permaforst areas for reducing the construction periods through modular transportation while limiting local construction workers. Hence, tehcnological trends were analyzed for oil-sand plant modularization. Data used were between 1994 and 2015 for patent analysis while targets included Korea, US, Japan, Europe and Canada. Technology classification system consisted of mining, steam assisted gravity drainage(SAGD), separation/ upgrading/tailors ponds, module design/packaging, module transportation and material/maintenance. Result of patent analysis, patent application accounts 89% in US and Canada. The main competitive companies were Shell, Suncor and Exxon-mobil. Unlike other oil developments, oil-sands have a long-term stable production characteristic, hence, it is important to ensure the competitiveness of oil-sands for obtaining a patent in the long run.
Reta L. Puspasari, Daeung Yoon, Hyun Kim, Kyoung-Woong KimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023;56: 65-73
Seon Yong Lee, YoungJae Kim, Young Jae LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023;56: 23-53
Eun-Young AhnEcon. Environ. Geol. 2021;54: 659-670
Sei Sun Hong, Choon Oh Lee, Jaesoo Lim, Jin Young Lee, Ung San AhnEcon. Environ. Geol. 2021;54: 1-19