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  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Abstract : The objective of this study is to estimate riverbed fluctuations and the volume of aggregate extraction attributable to climate change. Rainfall-runoff modeling, utilizing the SWAT model based on climate change scenarios, as well as long-term riverbed fluctuation modeling, employing the HEC-RAS model, were conducted for the Nonsan River basin. The analysis of rainfall-runoff and sediment transport under the SSP5-8.5 scenario for the early part of the future indicates that differences in annual precipitation may exceed 600 mm, resulting in a corresponding variation in the basin's sediment discharge by more than 30,000 tons per year. Additionally, long-term riverbed fluctuation modeling of the lower reaches of the Nonsan Stream has identified a potential aggregate extraction area. It is estimated that aggregate extraction could be feasible within a 2.455 km stretch upstream, approximately 4.6 to 6.9 km from the confluence with the Geum River. These findings suggest that the risk of climate crises, such as extreme rainfall or droughts, could increase due to abnormal weather conditions, and the increase in variability could affect long-term aggregate extraction. Therefore, it is considered important to take into account the impact of climate change in future long-term aggregate extraction planning and policy formulation.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Information System for Architectural Rock & Aggregate in Major Countries and It’s Implication

    Deahyung Kim, Yujeong Kim, Yong-Kun Choi

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 119-128

    Abstract : In Australia & Canada, architectural rock and aggregate are one of the mineral resources, and related data and information provided integrated with them. In these countries, the provided data and information, through the information system of local government and national geological survey organizations, are interactive maps, geological and thematic maps, exploration data set, 3 dimension geological models, minning rights status, survey reports and related papers etc. However, in case of Korea, aggregate and architectural rock are not assigned as the kind of mineral resources in accordance to domestic mining law, and related geological data and information are not provided from comprehensive mineral information system established in public geoscience organizations. And the administrative and informative management are conducted separately through the different governmental organizations such as Ministry of construction, Korea forest service, geoscience institute & Korea Mine & Reclamation Corporation. For securing the supply of architectural rock and aggregate resources, and for the convenience of their development & utilization, the unified information system and governance reform for the related industry is needed.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    A Study on Induced Effect Estimation of Aggregate and Stone Sector with Ritz-Spaulding Multipliers

    Dongho Jeong, Ji Whan Kim

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 129-141

    Abstract : This study derived production-production multipliers using a regional input-output table and estimated the induced effect of aggregates through the non-metallic minerals sector and the concrete products sector.
    In deriving the induced effect of aggregates, it is difficult to use the regional input-output table due to the sector classification problem. This study analyzed the non-metallic mineral sector, including aggregates, as aggregates sector, and the concrete products sector, which uses most of the aggregate production. By analyzing this, we attempted to alleviate difficulties caused by sector classification restrictions.
    In the process of estimating the induced effect, it was assumed that there was a decrease in aggregate production, and in the process of analyzing the concrete products sector, the effect of the decrease in concrete product production due to the decrease in aggregate production, that is, the decrease in production of one unit of aggregate was 0.8511 in the concrete product sector. The analysis was conducted on the premise of a decrease in unit production.
    Inducing effects within and between regions were calculated for the 17 metropolitan cities and provinces classified by the regional input-output table. The employment effect was also calculated, assuming a 10% production decrease to show differences according to the size of the aggregate and concrete product sectors in each region.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Distribution, Preservation Characteristics of Land and River Natural Aggregates in Nonsan City, Korea

    Hyun Ho Yoon, Sei Sun Hong, Min Han, Jin-Young Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 143-159

    Abstract : Natural aggregate is an essential resource for human activities, closely related to construction. The aggregate demand has been increasing annually, and due to the nature of the resource, it is difficult to procure from distant locations. This study identifies the distribution and characteristics of aggregate-bearing areas as part of a municipal-level aggregate resource survey conducted in Nonsan City, Korea, in 2023. Nonsan City is located approximately 35 km straight distance from the Geum River estuary and lies at the passageway of the main stream of the Geum River. The topography of Nonsan City features eastern mountainous areas and western plains, creating an east-high-west-low geomorphic setting, with 33 streams distributed across the city, including tributaries of the Geum River like Nonsan Stream, Noseong Stream, and Ganggyeong Stream. All streams originate from the highlands in the north and east, converge with Nonsan Stream, and then join the west bank of the main stream of the Geum River at the western boundary of Nonsan City. Drilling core results show shallow depths in the highlands to the north and east, deepening towards the west, reaching a maximum depth of 25 m near the main stream of the Geum River. The total reserve of land aggregates is calculated to be 246,789,000 m3, with a developable amount of 172,750,000 m3. The total reserve of river aggregates is 5,236,000 m3, with a developable amount of 3,765,000 m3. The distribution of aggregates varies according to the geomorphic, geologic, and development pattern of the river system. Reserves are scarce in mountainous areas but are abundant in regions with rivers and wide alluvial plains, although reserves appear at depths greater than 4m. The distribution of aggregate resources in Nonsan City is influenced by stream activities and sea level changes, with the tidal range of the Yellow Sea acting as an unfavorable condition for the preservation of aggregate resources.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

    0 67 30

    Study on the Strategy for Managing Aggregate Supply and Demand in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea

    Jin-Young Lee, Sei Sun Hong, Chul Seoung Baek

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 161-175

    Abstract : Aggregate typically refers to sand and gravel formed by the transportation of rocks in rivers or artificially crushed, constituting a core resource in the construction industry. Gyeongsangbuk-do, the largest administrative area in South Korea, produces various sources of gravel, including forest, land (excluding other sources), river, and crushed stone. As of 2022, it has extracted approximately 6.96 million cubic meters of aggregate, with permitted production totaling around 4.07 million cubic meters and reported production of about 2.88 million cubic meters. The aggregate demand in Gyeongsangbuk-do is estimated to be 12.39 million cubic meters according to the estimation method in Ready-Mix Concrete. From the supply perspective, about 120 extraction sites are operational, with most municipalities maintaining an appropriate balance between aggregate demand and supply. However, in some areas, there is inbound and outbound transportation of aggregate to neighboring regions. Regions with significant inbound and outbound aggregate transportation in Gyeongsangbuk-do are areas connected to Daegu Metropolitan City and Pohang City along the Gyeongbu rail line, showing a high correlation with population distribution. Gyeongsangbuk-do faces challenges such as population decline, aging rural areas, and insufficient balanced regional development. Analysis using GIS reveals these trends in gravel demand and supply. Currently in this study, Gyeongsangbuk-do meets its demand for aggregate through the supply of various aggregate sources, maintaining stable aggregate procurement. River and terrestrial aggregates may be sustained as short-term supply strategies due to the difficulty of long-term development. Considering the reliance on raw material supply for selective crushing, it suggests the need for raw material management to maintain stability. Gyeongsangbuk-do highlights quarries in the forest as an important resource for sustainable aggregate supply, advocating for the development of large-scale aggregate quarries as a long-term alternative. These research findings are expected to provide valuable insights for formulating strategies for sustainable management and stable utilization of aggregate resources.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Evaluation of Changes in Particle Size and Production of Sand and Cake Produced in Wet Aggregate Production Process

    Young-Wook Cheong, Jin-Young Lee, Sei-Sun Hong

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 177-184

    Abstract : This study was conducted to find a way to reduce the production of cakes generated in the domestic aggregate production process. Cakes from 8 wet aggregate producers were collected and particle size was analyzed. Samples were collected step by step from an aggregate producer A, particle size analysis was performed, and the material balance was calculated before and after an sand recovery unit by modeling the production process. As a result of the particle size analysis of eight cakes, one sample contained 50% sand, and the rest contained about 5% to 25% sand. The results showing that the cake contained a variety of sand in cakes may indicate that the recovery efficiency of the sand recovery units in the field varied. Sieve analysis of the samples showed that the generation of sand particles increased 2.8 times during the third crushing compared to the second crushing, and more cake particles were generated. As a result of simulating the sand recovery unit model, the lower the cut point of the cyclone and dewatering screen, the higher the sand production and the less cake production appeared. In order to reduce the production of cake in the field, it was determined that an optimal operation of the sand recovery unit was necessary in the aggregate production process.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

    0 61 35

    Natural Sand in Korea – Quality Evaluation –

    Sei Sun Hong, Jin Young Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 185-204

    Abstract : This study was conducted for evaluation the geological, physical, and chemical properties of domestic sand by analyzing about 4,800 quality data of natural sand from river and land area surveyed until 2023 through the aggregate resource survey conducted by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. The average depth of the Quaternary unconsolidated sedimentary layer in Korea, which includes a sand layer, is about 10m (maximum depth 66m). The thickness of the sand layer within the sedimentary layer is most dominant in the range of 0.5m to 4.0m. This accounts for about 70% of the entire sand layer. In the sand layer, the ratio of sand, gravel, and clay is 60:20:10. Regardless of the provenance or geology, the sand is mainly composed of quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar, and the minor minerals are muscovite, biotite, chlorite, magnetite, epidote. The sand includes in 45~75% of quartz, 5~20% of plagioclase and K-feldspar, each other. And other minor minerals are included in 10%. The average grain size of sand is 0.5mm to 1.0mm, which accounts for 44% of sand samples. The water absorption rate and soundness are estimated to be suitable for aggregate quality standard in almost all sand, and the absolute dry density is suitable for 66%.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Physical Properties of Volcanic Rocks in Jeju-Ulleung Area as Aggregates

    Byoung-Woon You, Chul-Seoung Baek, Kye-Young Joo

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 205-217

    Abstract : This study evaluated the physical characteristics and quality of volcanic rocks distributed in the Jeju Island-Ulleung Island area as aggregate resources. The main rocks in the Jeju Island area include conglomerate, volcanic rock, and volcanic rock. Conglomerate is composed of yellow-red or gray heterogeneous sedimentary rock, conglomerate, and encapsulated conglomerate in a state between lavas. Volcanic rocks are classified according to their chemical composition into basalt, trachybasalt, basaltic trachytic andesite, trachytic andesite, and trachyte. By stratigraphy, from bottom to top, Seogwipo Formation, trachyte andesite, trachybasalt (Ⅰ), basalt (Ⅰ), trachybasalt (Ⅱ), basalt (Ⅱ), trachybasalt (Ⅲ, Ⅳ), trachyte, trachybasalt (Ⅴ, Ⅵ), basalt (Ⅲ), and trachybasalt (Ⅶ, Ⅷ). The bedrock of the Ulleung Island is composed of basalt, trachyte, trachytic basalt, and trachytic andesite, and some phonolite and tuffaceous clastic volcanic sedimentary rock. Aggregate quality evaluation factors of these rocks included soundness, resistance to abrasion, absorption rate, absolute dry density and alkali aggregate reactivity. Most volcanic rock quality results in the study area were found to satisfy aggregate quality standards, and differences in physical properties and quality were observed depending on the area. Resistance to abrasion and absolute dry density have similar distribution ranges, but Ulleung Island showed better soundness and Jeju Island showed better absorption rate. Overall, Jeju Island showed better quality as aggregate. In addition, the alkaline aggregate reactivity test results showed that harmless aggregates existed in both area, but Ulleungdo volcanic rock was found to be more advantageous than Jeju Island volcanic rock. Aggregate quality testing is typically performed simply for each gravel, but even similar rocks can vary depending on their geological origin and mineral composition. Therefore, when evaluating and analyzing aggregate resources, it will be possible to use them more efficiently if the petrological-mineralological research is performed together.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Study on the Distribution Status of Construction Aggregates in Incheon Metropolitan City and Nearby Areas

    Chul-Seoung Baek, Byoung-Woon You, Kun-Ki Kim, Yu-Jeong Jang, Jin-Young Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 219-231

    Abstract : A survey of concrete plants in Incheon Metropolitan City and Gyeonggi Province was used to conduct an analysis of aggregate transport distance and production forms, as well as to evaluate the features and current status of aggregates distribution. As a result, areas such as Incheon, Siheung, Bucheon, Gimpo, and Siheung, where the distance to the demand points is less than 20 km, exhibited bidirectional distribution whereas Paju, Yongin, Yangju, and Pocheon, with distances ranging from 20 to 50 km is showed a unidirectional distribution pattern supplying aggregates exclusively to Incheon. Survey on manufacturing forms, more than 85% of the gravel dispersed in the Incheon area is made up of crushed aggregates derived from rocks discharged at construction sites indicating a considerable skew in supply chain. These findings are predicted to have a detrimental influence on aggregate supply in the long run, necessitating policy changes targeted at building an optimal aggregate distribution market.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Study on Geological Distribution of Fluorine in Forest Aggregate within Korea

    Yeong-Il Jeong, Kun-Ki Kim, Soon-Oh Kim, Sang-Woo Lee, Jin-Young Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 233-241

    Abstract : This study was conducted to investigate the geological distribution characteristics of fluorine in rocks, which can be a major resource of forest aggregates in Korea. Samples of forest aggregates were collected from 224 sites in 22 cities and counties for this study. The national background concentration was 344 mg/kg, which was significantly lower than the average fluorine concentration of crustal, which was 625 mg/kg, and slightly higher than the average fluorine concentration of world soil, which was 321 mg/kg. In terms of region and tectonic structure, fluorine concentrations were investigated to be highest in Gyeonggi-do(394 mg/kg) and Gyeonggi massif(396 mg/kg), respectively. The concentration distribution by the origin of the parent rock was in the order of metamorphic rock(362 mg/kg) > sedimentary rock(354 mg/kg) > igneous rock(328 mg/kg), and the concentration distribution by geologic ages was the highest in the Paleozoic at 394 mg/kg. The concentration distribution by rock types was in the order of diorite(515 mg/kg) > gneisses(377 mg/kg) > schists(344 mg/kg) > phyllite(306 mg/kg) > granites(305 mg/kg) > quartz porphyry(298 mg/kg). Consequently, it is speculated that gneisses and schists, Precambrian metamorphic rocks in the Gyeonggi massif that forms the crust of Gyeonggi-do, contain high fluorine concentrations.

  • Special Research Paper on “Research on Aggregate Resources in Korea (II)” 2024-04-30

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    Distribution Characteristics of Land and River Aggregate Resources in Yeongam Area by Deposition Period

    Jin Cheul Kim, Sei Sun Hong, Jin-Young Lee, Ju Yong Kim

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 243-251

    Abstract : In this study, a surface geological survey was first conducted to investigate aggregate resources in the Yeongam area of Jeollanam-do, and a drilling survey was conducted in the lower part of the surface, which was difficult to identify through a surface geological survey, to determine the spatial distribution of aggregates. Drilling sites were selected considering the topographical development and Quaternary alluvium characteristics of the study area, and river aggregate drilling surveys were conducted at a total of 5 points and land aggregate drilling surveys were conducted at a total of 28 points. Borehole core sediments were classified into seven sedimentary units to determine whether they could be used as aggregates, and optically stimulated luminescence dating was performed on representative boreholes to measure the depositional period for each sedimentary unit. As a result of the study, most of the Yeongam area had a very wide river basin, so it was estimated that there would be a large amount of aggregate, but the amount of aggregate was evaluated to be very small compared to other cities and counties. Most of the unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the Yeongam area are composed of blue-grey marine clay with a vertical thickness of more than 10 m. The sand-gravel layer corresponding to the aggregate section is distributed in the lower part of the marine clay, thinly covering the bedrock weathering zone. This is because the amount of aggregates themselves is small and most of the aggregates are distributed at a depth of 10 m below the surface, which is currently difficult to develop, so the possibility of developing aggregates is evaluated to be very low. As a result of dating, it can be seen that the blue-grey marine clay layer is an intertidal sedimentary layer formed as the sea level rose rapidly about 10,000 years ago. The deposition process continued from 10,000 years ago to the present, and as a result, a very thick clay layer was deposited. This clay layer was formed very dominantly for about 6,000 to 8,000 years, and the sand-gravel layer in the section where aggregates deposited in the Pleistocene period can exist was measured to have been deposited at about 13.0 to 19.0 ka, and about 50 ka, showing that it was deposited as paleo-fluvial deposits before the marine transgression process.

  • Research Paper 2024-04-30

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    Abstract : Olivine, a major mineral in the upper mantle with strong intrinsic elastic anisotropy, plays a crucial role in seismic anisotropy in the mantle, primarily through its lattice preferred orientation (LPO). Despite this, the influence of the microstructure of mylonitic rocks on seismic anisotropy remains inadequately understood. Notably, there is a current research gap concerning seismic anisotropy directly inferred from mylonitic peridotite massifs in Korea. In this study, we introduce the deformation microstructure and LPO of olivine in the mantle shear zone. We calculate the characteristics of seismic anisotropy based on the degree of deformation (proto-mylonite, mylonite, ultra-mylonite) and establish correlations between these characteristics. Our findings reveal that the seismic anisotropy resulting from the olivine LPO in the ultra-mylonitic rock appears to be the weakest, whereas the seismic anisotropy resulting from the olivine LPO in the proto-mylonitic rock appears to be the strongest. The results demonstrate a gradual decrease in seismic anisotropy as the fabric strength (J-index) of olivine LPO diminishes, irrespective of the specific pattern of olivine's LPO. Moreover, all samples exhibit a polarization direction of the fast S-wave aligned subparallel to the lineation. This suggests that seismic anisotropy originating from olivine in mylonitic peridotites is primarily influenced by fabric strength rather than LPO type. Considering these distinctive characteristics of seismic anisotropy is expected to facilitate comparisons and interpretations of the internal mantle structure and seismic data in the Yugu area, Gyeonggi Massif.

  • Research Paper 2024-04-30

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    Assessment on Impact Factor for Dehydration of Mine Drainage Sludge Using Flocculant and Dewatering Tube(KOMIR-Tube System)

    Misun Park, Juin Ko, Gwanin Bak, Seunghan Baek

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 263-270

    Abstract : In this study, impact factors for dehydration with KOMIR-Tube system using flocculant and dewatering tube were evaluated for mine drainage sludges. The experiments were conducted on semi-active facility sludges with water contents above 90 % using KOMIR-Tube system. The flocculant and input amount were determined from laboratory experiment and the dewatering efficiency was verified on-site experiment. The sludge characteristics were identified by instrumental analysis such as zeta potential measurement, particle size analysis, XRD, XRF and SEM-EDS. Selection of flocculants for sludge dewatering treatment need to consider not only precipitated rate but also filterated rate. Floc size has to keep at least 0.7 mm. From on-site experiments, sludge dewatering using KOMIR-Tube system suggests to carry out April and May that is low rainfall and humidity considering to climate conditions. Also, dewatering rate depends on the crystal degree of mineral that mainly makes up sludges. Particularly, goethite of the iron hydroxides has better dewatering rate than ferrihydrite. Ferrihydrite is low degree of crystallinity and uncleared or broad shaped crystal, goethite is good crystallinity with needle shaped crystal so that the effect of flocculation and dewatering showed to depend on the crystal. In results, impact factors of dewatering for mine drainage sludges are related to flocculant, climate, crystallinity and shape of iron hydroxides.

  • Review 2024-04-30

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    Implications of European Union’s Groundwater Nitrate Management Policies for Korea’s Sustainable Groundwater Management

    Junseop Oh, Jaehoon Choi, Hyunsoo Seo, Ho-Rim Kim, Hyun Tai Ahn, Seong-Taek Yun

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2024; 57(2): 271-280

    Abstract : This study examines the European Union (EU)’s policies on managing nitrate contamination in groundwater and provides implications for the future groundwater management in South Korea. Initiated by the 1991 Nitrate Directive, the EU has pursued a multifaceted approach to reduce agricultural nitrate pollution through sustainable (‘good’) farming practices, regular nitrate level monitoring, and designating Nitrate Vulnerable Zones. Further policy integrations, like the Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive, have established comprehensive protection strategies, including the use of pollutant threshold values. Recently, the 2019 Green Deal escalated efforts against nitrates, aligning with broader environmental and climate objectives. This review aims to explore these developments, highlighting key mitigation strategies against nitrate pollution, and providing valuable insights for the future sustainable groundwater nitrate management in South Korea, emphasizing the importance of preventive measures and collaborative efforts to restore and improve groundwater quality.

Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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