Current Issue

  • Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site” 2023-12-29

    1 230 97

    Abstract : Host rock of Cheonjeon-ri petroglyph is shale belonging to the Daegu Formation of Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup. The rocks were hornfelsified by thermal alteration, and shows high density and hardness. The petroglyph forms weathered zone with certain depth, and has difference in mineral and chemical composition from the unweathered zone. As the physical deterioration evaluations, most of cracks on the surface appear parallel to the bedding, and are concentrated in the upper part with relatively low density. Breakout parts are occurred in the upper and lower parts of the petroglyph, accounting for 6.0% of the total area and occurs to have been created by the wedging action of cracks crossing. The first exfoliation parts occupying the surface were 23.8% of the total area, the second exfoliations covered with 9.3%, and the exfoliation parts with three or more times were calculated as 3.4%. It is interpreted that this is not due to natural weathering, and the thermal shock caused by the cremation custom here in the past. As the ultrasonic properties, the petroglyph indicates highly strength in the horizontal direction parallel to bedding, and the area with little physical damage recorded mean of 4,684 m/s, but the area with severe cracks and exfoliations showed difference from 2,597 to 3,382 m/s on average. Physical deterioration to the Cheonjeon-ri petroglyph occurred to influence by repeated weathering, which caused the rock surface to become more severe than the inside and the binding force of minerals to weaken. Therefore, it can be understood that when greater stress occurs in the weathered zone than in the unweathered zone, the relatively weathered surface loses its support and exfoliation occurs.

  • Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site” 2023-12-29

    0 195 61

    Suggestions of Stone Materials for Restoration of Gwanghwamun Woldae in Seoul Based on Lithological Study

    Myeong Seong Lee, Yu Bin Ahn, Se Rin Park, Myoungju Choie, Jiyoung Kim

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 647-659

    Abstract : This study is to analyze the lithological similarities between railing stones of Gwanghwamun Woldae and stone blocks stored in Donggureung Royal Tombs, Guri, to interpret the provenance of the stones, and to suggest the most suitable quarry for a new stones supply among the rocks in the Seoul-Pocheon area in order to select stones for the restoration of the Gwanghwamun Woldae. The railing stones in Donggureung are medium to coarse-grained pink biotite granite, and their lithological characteristics, magnetic susceptibility(Average 5.20 ×10-3 SI unit), and gamma spectrometer data(K 5.00~6.38%, U 4.92~8.56 ppm, Th 27.60~36.44 ppm) show similarities with the remaining railing stones in Gwanghwamun Woldae(Average 5.38). Therefore, the railing stones in Donggureung can be reused for the restoration of Gwanghwamun Woldae. They have similar lithological and geochemical charateristics to the pink biotite granite found the Suraksan Mt. and Buramsan Mr. areas in Seoul, suggesting that these areas are the source of the stone. However, since the Suraksan Mt. and Buramsan Mt. areas are currently unavailable for quarrying, lithological and geochemical analyses on granite from the Yangju and Pocheon areas are conducted to determine the suitability of the new stone for restoration. As a result, a pink biotite granite similar to the Woldae stones was identified in the Pocheon area, and it is suggested that the stones similar in grain size and colour to the railing stones of Gwanghwamun Woldae should be selected and used for the restoration of Gwanghwamun Woldae.

  • Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site” 2023-12-29

    0 212 84

    Non-Destructive Material Analysis of Whetstones Discovered in Grain Transport Ship of the Early Joseon Period

    Dal-Yong Kong, Jae Hwan Kim, Eun Young Park, Yong Cheol Cho, Ki Hong Yang

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 661-674

    Abstract : From the seafloor of Taean, Chungcheongnamdo Province, a ship of the Joseon Dynasty was discovered for the first time in the history of underwater excavations in Korea in 2014 and was named Mado Shipwreck No. 4. A total of 27 unused whetstones loaded as tribute were discovered on the hull of Mado No. 4, which revealed that Mado Shipwreck No. 4 was a Grain transport ship that sank while carrying tribute from Naju to Hanyang between 1417 and 1425 (King Taejong to King Sejong). All of the 27 whetstones are in the shape of narrow and long sticks. The average values of length, width, thickness, and weight are 161.5 mm, 36.1 mm, 22.7 mm, and 253.2 g, respectively. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the constituent minerals are quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase, which is similar to that of the high-resolution digital stereomicroscope analysis. The average porosity of Mado-2672 and 2673 is 2.69% and 1.78%, respectively, and the average surface hardness is 807.2HLD and 834.5HLD, respectively. It is interpreted that if the porosity increases beyond a certain level, it affects the decrease in surface hardness. All of these are made of feldspathic sandstones with an average SiO2 content of 74.51% and were confirmed to be suitable as grindstones. They are all medium whetstones when classified based on the SiO2 content. These whetstones are small in size and weight and are convenient to carry, so they are presumed to be a type of non-stationary whetstone, and are estimated to have been mainly used in the fields such as weapon polishing and craft production during the Joseon Dynasty.

  • Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site” 2023-12-29

    0 607 82

    Abstract : The tracksite of dinosaurs and pterosaurs in Sanbuk-dong of Gunsan is the largest early Cretaceous dinosaur footprint fossil site in Korea, and all the footprints are important evidence indicating that large ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs inhabited the Korean peninsula during the early Cretaceous. The Sanbuk-dong site was covered with waterproof sheet in an outdoor environment until the installation of a protective enclosure in 2021. As a result, various factors such as shear force, load reduction, temperature and humidity fluctuations, acid rain, salinity and microorganisms have complexly interacted in the substrate of fossils, exacerbating the damage to footprints. For 159 footprints in 12 trackways among the footprints found in the site, the damage types were classified in detail and the level of each damage was assessed. The damages were classified into 6 types through the classification of deterioration degree of individual footprints. As a result of ultrasonic physical property evaluation on the surface of the fossil site, most of these footprints are in the completely weathered (CW) stage. Furthermore, various weathering patterns were observed in the study area, and surface contaminants were analyzed along the stratigraphy. Although the patterns of freshness and contaminants varied at different points within the fossil site, the chemical compositions were similar. Based on the results, an efficient conservation management system for dinosaur footprint fossils was established, and a conservation treatment type for each footprint was proposed.

  • Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site” 2023-12-29

    0 585 65

    Study on Material Characteristics and Conservation Methods for Tracksite of Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs of Jeongchon area in Jinju, Korea

    Ji Hyun Yoo, Yu Bin Ahn, Myoung Nam Kim, Myeong Seong Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 697-714

    Abstract : The Tracksite of Cretaceous Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs in Jeongchon, Jinju was discovered in late 2017 during the construction of the Ppuri industry complex. This site is a natural heritage site with a high paleontological value, as it preserves fossils of various types of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and animal traces at a dense concentration. In this study, we surveyed that physical weathering such as joint, crack, scaling, exfoliation, and fragmentation occurred through field research in the fossil site, and conducted basic research on conservation science to reduce the damage. To this end, among the eight levels identified after excavation, the rocks of Level 3, which yielded a large number of theropod footprint fossils, and Level 4, which yielded pterosaur footprint fossils, were analyzed for material characteristics and evaluation of the effectiveness of consolidation and adhesion. This results showed that the rocks in the Level 3 stratum were dark gray siltstone and the rocks in the Level 4 stratum were dark gray shale, which contained a large amount of calcite and were composed of quartz, plagioclase, mica, alkali feldspar, and other clay minerals, which are likely to be damaged by rainfall under external conditions. As a result of conducting an artificial weathering experiment by dividing the probationary sample into four groups: untreated, consolidation treatment, anti-swelling treatment, and adhesive treatment, the consolidation and the swelling inhibitor showed an effect immediately after treatment, but did not show a blocking effect under a freezing-thawing environment. The adhesive showed that the adhesive effect was maintained even under freezing-thawing conditions. In order to preserve the fossil sites at Jeongchon in the future, in addition to temporary measures to block the inflow of moisture, practical measures such as the construction of protective facilities should be prepared.

  • Special Research Paper on “Conservation and Management of Stone Cultural Heritage and Paleontological Site” 2023-12-29

    0 584 96

    Contaminant Mechanism and Management of Tracksite of Pterosaurs, Birds, and Dinosaurs in Chungmugong-dong, Jinju, Korea

    Myoungju Choie, Sangho Won, Tea Jong Lee, Seong-Joo Lee, Dal-Yong Kong, Myeong Seong Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 715-728

    Abstract : Tracksite of pterosaurs, birds, and dinosaurs in Chungmugong-dong in Jinju was designated as a natural monument in 2011 and is known as the world's largest in terms of the number and density of pterosaur footprints. This site has been managed by installing protection buildings to conserve in 2018. About 17% of the footprints of pterosaur, theropod, and ornithopod in this site under management in the 2nd protection building are of great academic value, but observation of footprints has difficulties due to continuous physical and chemical damage. In particular, the accumulation of milk-white contaminants is formed by the gypsum and air pollutant complex. Gypsum remains evaporated with a plate or columnar shape in the process of water circulation around the 2nd protection building, and the dust is from through the inflow of the gallery windows. The aqueous solution of gypsum, consisting of calcium from the lower bed and sulfur from grass growth, is catchmented into the groundwater from the area behind the protection building. Pollen and a few minerals other constituents of contaminants, go through the gallery window, which makes it difficult to expel dust. To conserve the fossil-bearing beds from two contaminants of different origins, controlling the water and atmospheric circulation of the 2nd protection building and removing the contaminants continuously is necessary. When cleaning contaminants, the steam cleaning method is sufficiently effective for powder-shaped milk-white contaminants. The fossil-bearing bed consists of dark gray shale with high laser absorption power; the laser cleaning method accompanies physical loss to fossils and sedimentary structures; therefore, avoiding it as much as possible is desirable.

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 165 96

    Lithium Distribution in Thermal Groundwater: A Study on Li Geochemistry in South Korean Deep Groundwater Environment

    Hyunsoo Seo, Jeong-Hwan Lee, SunJu Park, Junseop Oh, Jaehoon Choi, Jong-Tae Lee, Seong-Taek Yun

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 729-744

    Abstract : The value of lithium has significantly increased due to the rising demand for electric cars and batteries. Lithium is primarily found in pegmatites, hydrothermally altered tuffaceous clays, and continental brines. Globally, groundwater-fed salt lakes and oil field brines are attracting attention as major sources of lithium in continental brines, accounting for about 70% of global lithium production. Recently, deep groundwater, especially geothermal water, is also studied for a potential source of lithium. Lithium concentrations in deep groundwater can increase through substantial water-rock reaction and mixing with brines. For the exploration of lithim in deep groundwater, it is important to understand its origin and behavior. Therefore, based on a nationwide preliminary study on the hydrogeochemical characteristics and evolution of thermal groundwater in South Korea, this study aims to investigate the distribution of lithium in the deep groundwater environment and understand the geochemical factors that affect its concentration. A total of 555 thermal groundwater samples were classified into five hydrochemical types showing distinct hydrogeochemical evolution. To investigate the enrichment mechanism, samples (n = 56) with lithium concentrations exceeding the 90th percentile (0.94 mg/L) were studied in detail. Lithium concentrations varied depending upon the type, with Na(Ca)-Cl type being the highest, followed by Ca(Na)-SO4 type and low-pH Ca(Na)-HCO3 type. In the Ca(Na)-Cl type, lithium enrichment is due to reverse cation exchange due to seawater intrusion. The enrichment of dissolved lithium in the Ca(Na)-SO4 type groundwater occurring in Cretaceous volcanic sedimentary basins is related to the occurrence of hydrothermally altered clay minerals and volcanic activities, while enriched lithium in the low-pH Ca(Na)-HCO3 type groundwater is due to enhanced weathering of basement rocks by ascending deep CO2. This reconnaissance geochemical study provides valuable insights into hydrogeochemical evolution and economic lithium exploration in deep geologic environments.

  • Review 2023-12-29

    0 234 130

    Banded Iron Formations in Congo: A Review

    Yarsé Brodivier Mavoungou, Anthony Temidayo Bolarinwa, Noël Watha-Ndoudy, Georges Muhindo Kasay

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 745-764

    Abstract : In the Republic of Congo, Banded iron formations (BIFs) occur in two areas: the Chaillu Massif and the Ivindo Basement Complex, which are segments of the Archean Congo craton outcropping in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the country. They show interesting potential with significant mineral resources reaching 2 Bt and grades up to 60% Fe. BIFs consist mostly of oxide-rich facies (hematite/magnetite), but carbonate-rich facies are also highlighted. They are found across the country within the similar geological sequences composed of amphibolites, gneisses and greenschists. The Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized patterns of BIFs show enrichment in elements such as SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, P2O5, Cr, Cu, Zn, Nb, Hf, U and depletion in TiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O, Sc, Th, Ba, Zr, Rb, Ni, V. REE diagrams show slight light REEs (rare earth elements; LREEs) compared to heavy REEs (HREEs), and positive La and Eu anomalies. The lithological associations, as well as the very high (Eu/Eu*)SN ratios> 1.8 shown by the BIFs, suggest that they are related to Algoma-type BIFs. The positive correlations between Zr and TiO2, Al2O3, Hf suggest that the contamination comes mainly from felsic rocks, while the absence of correlations between MgO and Cr, Ni argues for negligeable contributions from mafic sources. Pr/Pr* vs. Ce/Ce* diagram indicates that the Congolese BIFs were formed in basins with redox heterogeneity, which varies from suboxic to anoxic and from oxic to anoxic conditions. They were formed through hydrothermal vents in the seawater, with relatively low proportions of detrital inputs derived from igneous sources through continental weathering. Some Congolese BIFs show high contents in Cr, Ni and Cu, which suggest that iron (Fe) and silicon (Si) have been leached through hydrothermal processes associated with submarine volcanism. We discussed their tectonic setting and depositional environment and proposed that they were deposited in extensional back-arc basins, which also recorded hydrothermal vent fluids.

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 123 43

    Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies on the Daum Vent Field, Central Indian Ridge

    Ryoung Gyun Kim, Sun Ki Choi, Jonguk Kim, Sang Joon Pak, Wonnyon Kim

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 765-779

    Abstract : The Daum Vent Field (DVF) was newly discovered in the Central Indian Ridge during the hydrothermal expedition by the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST) in 2021. In this paper, we describe the detailed mineralogy and geochemistry of hydrothermal chimney and mound to understand the nature of hydrothermal mineralization in the DVF. The mineral assemblages (pyrite±sphalerite±chalcopyrite) of dominant sulfides, FeS contents (mostly <20 mole %) of sphalerite, and (Cu+Zn)/Fe values (0.001–0.22) of bulk compositions indicate that the DVF has an strong affinity with basaltic-hosted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposit along the oceanic ridge. Combined with the predominance of colloform and/or dendritic-textured pyrite and relatively Fe-poor sphalerite in chimneys, the fluid-temperature dependency of trace element systematics (Co, Mn, and Tl) between chimney and mound indicates that the formation of mound was controlled by relatively reducing and high-temperature fluids compared to chimney. The δ34S values (+8.31 to +10.52‰) of pyrite reflect that sulfur and metals were mainly leached from the associated basement rocks (50.6–61.3%) with a contribution from reduced seawater sulfur (38.7–49.4%). This suggests that the fluid-rock interaction, with little effect of magmatic volatile influx, is an important metal source for the sulfide mineralization in the DVF.

  • Review 2023-12-29

    0 133 82

    Situation of Utilization and Geological Occurrences of Critical Minerals(Graphite, REE, Ni, Li, and V) Used for a High-tech Industry

    Sang-Mo Koh, Bum Han Lee, Chul-Ho Heo, Otgon-Erdene Davaasuren

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 781-797

    Abstract : Recently, there has been a rapid response from mineral-demanding countries for securing critical minerals in a high tech industries. Graphite, while overwhelmingly dominated by China in production, is changing in global supply due to the exponential growth in EV battery sector, with active exploration in East Africa. Rare earth elements are essential raw materials widely used in advanced industries. Globally, there are ongoing developments in the production of REEs from three main deposit types: carbonatite, laterite, and ion-adsorption clay types. While China's production has decreased somewhat, it still maintains overwhelming dominance in this sector. Recent changes over the past few years include the rapid emergence of Myanmar and increased production in Vietnam. Nickel has been used in various chemical and metal industries for a long time, but recently, its significance in the market has been increasing, particularly in the battery sector. Worldwide, nickel deposits can be broadly classified into two types: laterite-type, which are derived from ultramafic rocks, and ultramafic hosted sulfide-type. It is predicted that the development of sulfide-type, primarily in Australia, will continue to grow, while the development of laterite-type is expected to be promoted in Indonesia. This is largely driven by the growing demand for nickel in response to the demand for lithium-ion batteries. The global lithium ores are produced in three main types: brine lake (78%), rock/mineral (19%), and clay types (3%). Rock/mineral type has a slightly higher grade compared to brine lake type, but they are less abundant. Chile, Argentina, and the United States primarily produce lithium from brine lake deposits, while Australia and China extract lithium from both brine lake and rock/mineral sources. Canada, on the other hand, exclusively produces lithium from rock/mineral type. Vanadium has traditionally been used in steel alloys, accounting for approximately 90% of its usage. However, there is a growing trend in the use for vanadium redox flow batteries, particularly for large-scale energy storage applications. The global sources of vanadium can be broadly categorized into two main types: vanadium contained in iron ore (81%) produced from mines and vanadium recovered from by-products (secondary sources, 18%). The primary source, accounting for 81%, is vanadium-iron ores, with 70% derived from vanadium slag in the steel making process and 30% from ore mined in primary sources. Intermediate vanadium oxides are manufactured from these sources. Vanadium deposits are classified into four types: vanadiferous titanomagnetite (VTM), sandstone-hosted, shale-hosted, and vanadate types. Currently, only the VTM-type ore is being produced.

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 151 82

    Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Shale Deposits in the Lower Anambra Basin, Nigeria: Implication for Provenance, Tectonic Setting and Depositional Environment

    Olugbenga Okunlola, Agonsi Udodirim Lydia, Aliyu Ohiani Umaru, Raymond Webrah Kazapoe, Olusegun G. Olisa

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 799-816

    Abstract : Mineralogical and geochemical studies of shales within the Lower Anambra Basin was conducted to unravel the depositional environment, provenance, maturity, paleo-weathering conditions, and tectonic settings. Mineralogical studies conducted using X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the samples were composed of kaolinite, montmorillonite, chlorite, and illite. KaolinIite is the dominant mineral, constituting approximately 41.5% of the bulk composition, whereas the non-clay minerals are quartz, ilmenite, and sillimanite. Geochemical analysis showed a predominance of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 contents of the shale samples with mean values of 52.29%, 14.09%, and 6.15% for Imo Shale (IS); 52.31%, 16.70%, and 7.39% for Mamu Shale (MS); 43.21%, 21.33%, and 10.36% for Enugu Shale (ES); 53.35%, 15.64%, and 7.17% for Nkporo Shale (NS); and 51.24%, 17.25%, and 7.78% for Agwu Shale (AS). However, the shales were depleted in Na2O, MgO, K2O, MnO, TiO2, CaO, and P2O5. The trace element ratios of Ni/Co and Cu/Zn of the shale suggest an oxic depositional environment. The average SiO2 vs. Al2O3 ratio of the shales indicated textural maturity. Compared to the PAAS standard, the shales plot below the PAAS value of 0.85, suggesting a high degree of maturity and intensive chemical weathering, further confirmed on a CIA vs. PIA plot. On log (K2O/Na2O) against SiO2 and tectonic setting discriminant function diagrams, the shales plot mostly in the field of passive continental margin tectonic setting. The discriminant function diagrams as well as Al2O3/TiO2 ratio of the shales showed that they were derived from a mixed source (mafic and intermediate igneous rocks).

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 151 82

    Alice Springs Orogeny (ASO) Footprints Tracing in Fresh Rocks in Arunta Region, Central Australia, Using Uranium/Lead (U-Pb) Geochronology

    Kouame Yao, Mohammed O. Idrees, Abdul-Lateef Balogun, Mohamed Barakat A. Gibril

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 817-830

    Abstract : This study investigates the age of the surficial rocks in the Arunta region using Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) geochronological dating. Rock samples were collected at four locations, Cattle-Water Pass (CP 1610), Gough Dam (GD 1622 and GD 1610), and London-Eye (LE 1601), within the Strangways Metamorphic Complex and crushed by selFragging. Subsequently, the zircon grains were imaged using Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis and the U-Pb (uranium and lead) isotope ratios and the chrono-stratigraphy were measured. The imaged zircon revealed an anomalous heterogeneous crystal structure. Ellipses of the samples at locations GD1601, CP1610, and GD1622 fall below the intercept indicating the ages produced discordant patterns, whereas LE1601 intersects the Concordia curve at two points, implying the occurrence of an event of significant impact. For the rock sample at CP1610, the estimated mean age is 1742.2 ± 9.2 Ma with mean squared weighted deviation (MSWD) = 0.49 and probability of equivalence of 0.90; 1748 ± 15 Ma - MSWD = 1.02 and probability of equivalence of 0.40 for GD1622; and 1784.4 ± 9.1 Ma with MSWD of 1.09 and probability of equivalence of 0.37 for LE1601. But for samples at GD1601, two different age groups with different means occurred: 1) below the global mean (1792.2 ± 32 Ma) estimated at 1738.2 ± 14 Ma with MSWD of 0.109 and probability of equivalence of 0.95 and 2) above it with mean of 1838.22 ± 14 Ma, MSWD of 1.6 and probability of equivalence of 0.95. Analysis of the zircon grains has shown a discrepancy in the age range between 1700 Ma and 1800 Ma compared to the ASO dated to have occurred between 440 and 300 Ma. Moreover, apparent similarity in age of the core and rim means that the mineral crystallized relatively quickly without significant interruptions and effect on the isotopic system. This may have constraint the timing and extent of geological events that might have affected the mineral, such as metamorphism or hydrothermal alteration.

  • Short Note 2023-12-29

    0 146 105

    Abstract : The Jucheon-Pyeongchang area in the northwestern Taebaeksan Zone of the Okcheon fold-thrust belt preserved several thrust faults placing the Precambrian basement granite gneisses of the Gyeonggi Massif on top of the Early Paleozoic Joseon Supergroup and the age-unknown Bangrim Group. Especially, the thrust faults in the study area show the closed-loop patterns on the map view, showing older allochthonous strata surrounded by younger autochthonous or para-autochthonous strata. These basement-involved thrusts including Klippes will provide important information on the hinterland portion of the fold-thrust belt. For defining Klippe geometry in the thrust fault terrains of the Jucheon-Pyeongchang area by older on younger relationship, the stratigraphic position of the age-unknown Bangrim Group should be determined. The Middle Cambrian maximum depositional age by the detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb method from this study, together with field relations and previous research results suggest that the Bangrim Group overlies the Precambrian basement rocks by nonconformity and underlies the Cambrian Yangdeok Group (Jangsan and Myobong formations). The structural geometric interpretation of the Pyeongchang area based on newly defined stratigraphy indicates that the Wungyori and Barngrim thrusts are the same folded thrust, and can be interpreted as a Klippe, having Precambrian hanging wall granite gneisses surrounded by younger Cambrian strata of the Joseon Supergroup and the Bangrim Group. Further detailed structural studies on the Jucheon-Pyeongchang area can give crucial insights into the basement-involved deformation during the structural evolution of the Okcheon Belt.

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 174 66

    Geochemical Modeling on Behaviors of Radionuclides (U, Pu, Pd) in Deep Groundwater Environments of South Korea

    Jaehoon Choi, SunJu Park, Hyunsoo Seo, Hyun Tai Ahn, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Junghoon Park, Seong-Taek Yun

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 847-870

    Abstract : The safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste requires accurate predictions of the long-term geochemical behavior of radionuclides. To achieve this, the present study was conducted to model geochemical behaviors of uranium (U), plutonium (Pu), and palladium (Pd) under different hydrogeochemical conditions that represent deep groundwater in Korea. Geochemical modeling was performed for five types of South Korean deep groundwater environment: high-TDS saline groundwater (G1), low-pH CO2-rich groundwater (G2), high-pH alkaline groundwater (G3), sulfate-rich groundwater (G4), and dilute (fresh) groundwater (G5). Under the pH and Eh (redox potential) ranges of 3 to 12 and ±0.2 V, respectively, the solubility and speciation of U, Pu, and Pd in deep groundwater were predicted. The result reveals that U(IV) exhibits high solubility within the neutral to alkaline pH range, even in reducing environment with Eh down to -0.2 V. Such high solubility of U is primarily attributed to the formation of Ca-U-CO3 complexes, which is important in both G2 located along fault zones and G3 occurring in granitic bedrocks. On the other hand, the solubility of Pu is found to be highly dependent on pH, with the lowest solubility in neutral to alkaline conditions. The predominant species are Pu(IV) and Pu(III) and their removal is predicted to occur by sorption. Considering the migration by colloids, however, the role of colloid formation and migration are expected to promote the Pu mobility, especially in deep groundwater of G3 and G5 which have low ionic strengths. Palladium (Pd) exhibits the low solubility due to the precipitation as sulfides in reducing conditions. In oxidizing condition, anionic complexes such as Pd(OH)3-, PdCl3(OH)2-, PdCl42-, and Pd(CO3)22- would be removed by sorption onto metal (hydro)oxides. This study will improve the understanding of the fate and transport of radionuclides in deep groundwater conditions of South Korea and therefore contributes to develop strategies for safe high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 121 42

    Aggregate of Korea in 2022

    Sei Sun Hong, Jin Young Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 871-885

    Abstract : In 2022, the total of 129 million m3 of aggregate was produced in Korea, a slightly decrease from the total production of 2021. Of these, about 44 million m3 of sand and about 84 million m3 of gravel were produced. About 41% of total quantity of aggregates were produced by permission and the rest were produced after declaration. It estimated that of the 129 million m3 of aggregates in Korea in 2022, about 54.9% was produced by screening crushed aggregate, by 32.8% by forest aggregate, 2.2% by land aggregate, 6.2% by marine aggregate and 3.1% by washing aggregate, and 0.3% by river aggregate. This indicates that screening crushed and forest aggregate are the main producers of domestic aggregate in 2022. Leading producing metropolitan governments were Gyeonggi-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, Incheon, Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, Gangwon-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do in order decreasing volume. In 2022, aggregates were produced in 147 local governments, and the 10 leading producing local governments were, in descending order of volume, Hwaseong, Pocheon, Paju, Ongjin, Youngin, Gwangju, west EEZ, Incheon Seo-gu, Namyangju, Asan. The combined production of the 10 leading local governments accounted for 31% of the national total. And 44 local governments have produced aggregates of more than 1 million m3 each other. In 148 local governments that produced aggregate, a total of 800 active operations produced aggregate with 350 operations by river, land and forest aggregate, 450 operations by selective crushed and washing aggregate.

  • Review 2023-12-29

    0 130 97

    Review of International Cases for Managing Input Data in Safety Assessment for High-Level Radioactive Waste Deep Disposal Facilities

    Mi Kyung Kang, Hana Park, Sunju Park, Hae Sik Jeong, Woon Sang Yoon, Jeonghwan Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 887-897

    Abstract : Leading waste disposal countries, such as Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, conduct safety assessments across all stages of High-Level Radioactive Waste Deep Geological Disposal Facilities-from planning and site selection to construction, operation, closure, and post-closure management. As safety assessments are repeatedly performed at each stage, generating vast amounts of diverse data over extended periods, it is essential to construct a database for safety assessment and establish a data management system. In this study, the safety assessment data management systems of leading countries, were analyzed, categorizing them into 1) input and reference data for safety assessments, 2) guidelines for data management, 3) organizational structures for data management, and 4) computer systems for data management. While each country exhibited differences in specific aspects, commonalities included the classification of safety assessment input data based on disposal system components, the establishment of organizations to supply, use, and manage this data, and the implementation of quality management systems guided by instructions and manuals. These cases highlight the importance of data management systems and document management systems for securing the safety and enhancing the reliability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. To achieve this, the classification of input data that can be flexibly and effectively utilized, ensuring the consistency and traceability of input data, and establishing a quality management system for input data and document management are necessary.

  • Research Paper 2023-12-29

    0 106 54

    Characteristics Evaluation of Hobun Pigments according to Shell Types and Calcination

    Ju Hyun Park, Sun Myung Lee, Myoung Nam Kim, Jin Young Hong

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(6): 899-909

    Abstract : In this study, the material scientific characteristics of Hobun pigments used as white inorganic pigment for traditional cultural heritage were identified according to the type of shell and calcination and evaluated the stability of the preservation environment. For the purpose of this, we collected 2 different types of Hobun pigments made by oyster and clam shell and its calcined products(at 1,150℃). Hobun pigments before calcined identified calcium carbonate such as calcite, aragonite but calcination derived changing main composition to portlandite and calcite. Results of FE-SEM showed characteristics microstructure for each shell but pigments after calcined observed porous structure. Porous granule highly caused oil adsorption according to increase specific surface area of pigments. In addition, the whiteness improved after calcined pigments compared to non-calcined pigments, and the color improvement rate of Hobun pigment (CS) which made of clam shell was higher. As a result of the accelerated weathering test, the Hobun pigment-colored specimen had a color difference value of less than 2 after the test, which was difficult to recognize with the naked eye. In particular, the color stability has improved as the color difference value of the Hobun pigment is smaller after calcined compared to before non-calcined pigment. However, it was confirmed that the stability of the painting layer was lower in the specimen after calcined pigment. For antifungal activity test, Aspergillus niger, Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor were used as test fungi, and all pigments were found to have preventive and protective effects against fungi. Especially, the antifungal effect of the calcined pigment was excellent, which is due to the stronger basicity of the pigment.

Dec 29, 2023 Vol.56 No.6, pp. 629~909

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