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  • Short Note 2023-04-30

    0 169 55

    Principle and Application of ‘Image-mapping’ in-situ U-Pb Carbonate Age-dating

    Ha Kim, Seongsik Hong, Chaewon Park, Jihye Oh, Jonguk Kim, Yungoo Song

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 115-123

    Abstract : We introduce a new ‘image-mapping’ in-situ U-Pb dating method using LA-ICP-MS, proposed by Drost et al. (2018), and show the characteristics and usability of this method through several examples of absolute age results determined by first applying it to samples from the Joseon Supergroup of the Early Paleozoic Era in Korea. Unlike the previous in-situ spot analysis, this in-situ U-Pb dating method for carbonate minerals can determine the absolute age with high reliability by applying the 'image-mapping' method of micro-sized domains based on micro-textural observation, as well as determine the absolute age of multiple geological 'events' that occurred after deposition. This was confirmed in the case of determining the syn-depositional age and the multiple post-depositional ages from carbonate minerals of the Makgol and the Daegi Formations. Therefore, if the 'image-mapping' in-situ U-Pb dating method is applied to determine the absolute age of various types of carbonate minerals that exist in various geological environments throughout the geologic era, it will be possible to secure new geological age information.

  • Research Paper 2023-04-30

    0 148 30

    Identification of Sorption Characteristics of Cesium for the Improved Coal Mine Drainage Treated Sludge (CMDS) by the Addition of Na and S

    Soyoung Jeon, Danu Kim, Jeonghyeon Byeon, Daehyun Shin, Minjune Yang, Minhee Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 125-138

    Abstract : Most of previous cesium (Cs) sorbents have limitations on the treatment in the large-scale water system having low Cs concentration and high ion strength. In this study, the new Cs sorbent that is eco-friendly and has a high Cs removal efficiency was developed by improving the coal mine drainage treated sludge (hereafter ‘CMDS’) with the addition of Na and S. The sludge produced through the treatment process for the mine drainage originating from the abandoned coal mine was used as the primary material for developing the new Cs sorbent because of its high Ca and Fe contents. The CMDS was improved by adding Na and S during the heat treatment process (hereafter ‘Na-S-CMDS’ for the developed sorbent in this study). Laboratory experiments and the sorption model studies were performed to evaluate the Cs sorption capacity and to understand the Cs sorption mechanisms of the Na-S-CMDS. The physicochemical and mineralogical properties of the Na-S-CMDS were also investigated through various analyses, such as XRF, XRD, SEM/EDS, XPS, etc. From results of batch sorption experiments, the Na-S-CMDS showed the fast sorption rate (in equilibrium within few hours) and the very high Cs removal efficiency (> 90.0%) even at the low Cs concentration in solution (< 0.5 mg/L). The experimental results were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, suggesting the mostly monolayer coverage sorption of the Cs on the Na-S-CMDS. The Cs sorption kinetic model studies supported that the Cs sorption tendency of the Na-S-CMDS was similar to the pseudo-secondorder model curve and more complicated chemical sorption process could occur rather than the simple physical adsorption. Results of XRF and XRD analyses for the Na-S-CMDS after the Cs sorption showed that the Na content clearly decreased in the Na-S-CMDS and the erdite (NaFeS2•2(H2O)) was disappeared, suggesting that the active ion exchange between Na+ and Cs+ occurred on the Na-S-CMDS during the Cs sorption process. From results of the XPS analysis, the strong interaction between Cs and S in Na-S-CMDS was investigated and the high Cs sorption capacity was resulted from the binding between Cs and S (or S-complex). Results from this study supported that the Na-S-CMDS has an outstanding potential to remove the Cs from radioactive contaminated water systems such as seawater and groundwater, which have high ion strength but low Cs concentration.

  • Research Paper 2023-04-30

    0 125 26

    Study of Spatiotemporal Variations and Origin of Nitrogen Content in Gyeongan Stream

    Jonghoon Park, Sinyoung Kim, Soomin Seo, Hyun A Lee, Nam C. Woo

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 139-153

    Abstract : This study aimed to understand the spatiotemporal variations in nitrogen content in the Gyeongan stream along the main stream and at the discharge points of the sub-basins, and to identify the origin of the nitrogen. Field surveys and laboratory analyses, including chemical compositions and isotope ratios of nitrate and boron, were performed from November 2021 to November 2022. Based on the flow duration curve (FDC) derived for the Gyeongan stream, the dry season (mid-December 2021 to mid-June 2022) and wet season (mid-June to early November 2022) were established.
    In the dry season, most samples had the highest total nitrogen(T-N) concentrations, specifically in January and February, and the concentrations continued to decrease until May and June. However, after the flood season from July to September, the uppermost sub-basin points (Group 1: MS-0, OS-0, GS-0) where T-N concentrations continually decreased were separated from the main stream and lower sub-basin points (Group 2: MS-1~8, OS-1, GS-1) where concentrations increased. Along the main stream, the T-N concentration showed an increasing trend from the upper to the lower reaches. However, it was affected by those of the Osan-cheon and Gonjiamcheon, the tributaries that flow into the main stream, resulting in respective increases or decreases in T-N concentration in the main stream. The nitrate and boron isotope ratios indicated that the nitrogen in all samples originated from manure. Mechanisms for nitrogen inflow from manure-related sources to the stream were suggested, including (1) manure from livestock wastes and rainfall runoff, (2) inflow through the discharge of wastewater treatment plants, and (3) inflow through the groundwater discharge (baseflow) of accumulated nitrogen during agricultural activities.
    Ultimately, water quality management of the Gyeongan stream basin requires pollution source management at the sub-basin level, including its tributaries, from a regional context. To manage the pollution load effectively, it is necessary to separate the hydrological components of the stream discharge and establish a monitoring system to track the flow and water quality of each component.

  • Research Paper 2023-04-30

    0 135 27

    Study on Evaluation of Critical Minerals for the Development of Korea's Materials-parts Industry

    Yujeong Kim, Sunjin Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 155-166

    Abstract : Through COVID-19, the importance of supply chain management of raw material minerals has been maximized. In particular, supply chain management is important for rare metals, which are difficult to manage demand and supply, in order to secure raw materials for the parts and materials industry that Korea is actively promoting. In this study, a system was established and evaluated to select Critical minerals that need to respond to Korea's industrial structure and global risks by quantifying tangible and intangible risk factors. Global Supply Concentration, Supplying country risk, Policy Social Environment Regulation, Domestic Import Instability, Risk responsiveness, Market Scale, Demand Fluctuation and Economic Importance were evaluated as evaluation indicators. The degree of risk and risk impact were quantitatively measured using the criticality matrix-criticality level. After evaluating 40 types of minerals used in domestic new growth businesses, 15 types of Critical minerals(Li, Pt, Co, V, REE, Mg, Mo, Cr, Ti, W, C, Ni, Al, Mn, Si) in Korea were selected. The results a re ex pected to be u sed to establish policies to strengthen resource security and to make decisions to form a company's raw material portfolio.

  • Review 2023-04-30

    0 129 34

    Review for Mechanisms of Gas Generation and Properties of Gas Migration in SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) Repository Site

    Danu Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Seon-ok Kim, Sookyun Wang, Minhee Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 167-183

    Abstract : Gases originated from the final SNF (spent nuclear fuel) disposal site are very mobile in the barrier and they may also affect the migration of radioactive nuclides generated from the SNF. Mechanisms of gas-nuclide migration in the multi-barrier and their influences on the safety of the disposal site should be understood before the construction of the final SNF disposal site. However, researches related to gas-nuclide coupled movement in the multi-barrier medium have been very little both at home and abroad.
    In this study, properties of gas generation and migration in the SNF disposal environment were reviewed through previous researches and their main mechanisms were summarized on the hydrogeological evolution stage of the SNF disposal site. Gas generation in the SNF disposal site was categorized into five origins such as the continuous nuclear fission of the SNS, the Cu-canister corrosion, the oxidation-reduction reaction, the microbial activity, and the inflow from the natural barriers. Migration scenarios of gas in porous medium of the multi-barrier in the SNF repository site were investigated through reviews for previous studies and several gas migration types including ① the free gas phase flow including visco-capillary two-phase flow, ② the advection and diffusion of dissolved gas in pore water, ③ dilatant two-phase flow, and ④ tensile fracture flow, were presented.
    Reviewed results in this study can support information to design the further research for the gas-nuclide migration in the repository site and to evaluate the safety of the Korean SNF disposal site in view points of gas migration in the multi-barrier.

  • Research Paper 2023-04-30

    0 100 26

    Abstract : This study aimed to predict the effects of water ecology on the supply of hydrothermal energy to model a housing complex in Eco Delta Smart Village in Busan. Based on the results, engineering measures were recommended to minimize problems due to possible temperature variations on the supply of hydrothermal energy from the river. The current distribution of fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, and phytoplankton in the Pyeonggang Stream was monitored to determine their effects on water ecology.
    In the research area, five species and three families of fish were observed. The dominant species was Lepomis macrochirus, and the subdominant species was Carassius auratus. Twenty-five species and 21 families of benthic macroinvertebrates were found. The distribution of aquatic insects was poor in this area. The dominant species were Chironomidae sp., Lymnaea auricularia, Appasus japonicus, and Caridina denticulata denticulata in February, May, July, and October. Dominant phytoplankton were Aulacoseira ambigua and Nitzschia palea in February and May. Microcystis sp. was dominant in July and October. The health of the ecology the Pyeonggang Stream was assessed as D (bad) according to the benthic macroinvertebrate index (BMI).
    Shifts in the location of the discharge point 150 m downstream from intake points and discharge through embedded rock layer after adding equal amounts of stream water as was taken at the beginning were suggested to minimize water temperature variations due to the application of hydrothermal energy. When the scenario (i.e., quantity of water intake and dilution water, 1,600 m3/d and water temp. difference ±5 ℃) was realized, variations in water temperature were assessed at -0.19 ℃ and 0.59 ℃ during cooling and heating, respectively, at a point 10 m downstream. Water temperatures recorded at -0.20 ℃ and 0.68 ℃ during cooling and heating, respectively, at a point 10 m upstream. All stream water temperatures after the application of hydrothermal energy recovered within 24 hours. Future work on the long-term monitoring of ecosystems is suggested, particularly to analyze the influence of the water environment on hydrothermal energy supply operations.

  • Research Paper 2023-04-30

    0 105 27

    Investigation of Source Area and Material Characteristics of the Stone Properties from Stone-lined Tombs in Cheongyang Rokpyeong-ri Site, Korea

    Il Kyu Choi, Jun Ho Song, Bo Seon Lee, Chan Hee Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(2): 201-215

    Abstract : In the stone-lined tombs from Cheongyang Rokpyeong-ri site, several stone-lined tombs corresponding to the Three Kingdoms Period, Unified Silla Period and Goryeo Dynasty were excavated. In this study, the stone properties of petrological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics from 15 stone-lined tombs were analyzed, the rock species and occupation rate were reviewed, also the provenance area was interpreted. There are five types of rocks used as members of the tombs, including black sandstone, greywacke, slate, conglomerate and gneiss. As a result of magnetic susceptibilities, the rocks of the tombs and presumed provenance are all shown in the same range, and the similarity between the tombs and the source area is high in geochemical behavior characteristics. The stone properties of the tombs are the same as the presumed provenance rocks and is distributed within a 500m around the bedrock of the tombs in the excavation site, so it seems that self-sufficiency was possible on the site without a special procurement system. These stones are interpreted to have been constructed through some trimming without any special technique, but some stone tombs have been confirmed to used homogeneous black sandstone at the bottom of the tombs, so it is believed that there were artificial selection of stones.

Apr 30, 2023 Vol.56 No.2, pp. 115~215

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