Vol.56 No.4, August 30, 2023
Ji-hoon Park, Sung-Joon Chang, Michael WitekEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 365-384
Abstract : We applied the partitioned waveform inversion to 2,026 event data recorded at 173 seismic stations from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Managing Center and the Ocean Hemisphere network Project to estimate S-wave velocity and radial anisotropy models beneath the Western Pacific. In the Philippine Sea plate, high-Vs anomalies reach deeper in the West Philippine basin than in the Parece-Vela basin. Low-Vs anomalies found at 80 km below the Parece-Vela basin extend deeper into the West Philippine Basin. This velocity contrast between the basins may be caused by differences in lithospheric age. Low-Vs anomalies are observed beneath the Caroline seamount chain and the Caroline plate. Overall positive radial anisotropy anomalies are observed in the Western Pacific, but negative radial anisotropy is found at > 220 km depth on the subducting plate along the Mariana trench and at ~50 km in the Parece-Vela basin. Positive radial anisotropy is found at > 200 km depth beneath the Caroline seamount chain, which may indicate the 'drag' between the plume and the moving Pacific plate. High-Vs anomalies are found at 40 ~ 180 km depth beneath the Ontong-Java plateau, which may indicate the presence of unusually thick lithosphere due to underplating of dehydrated plume material.
Younggi Choi, Seung-Ik Park, Taejin ChoiEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 385-396
Abstract : The Mesozoic Bansong Group, distributed along the NE-SW thrust fault zone of the Okcheon Fold Belt in the Danyang-Yeongwol-Jeongseon areas, contains important information on the two Mosozoic orogenic cycles in the Koran Peninsula, the Permian-Triassic Songrim Orogeny and the Jurassic Daebo Orogeny. This study aims to review previous studies on the stratigraphy, depositional period, and basin evolution of the Bansong Group and to suggest future research directions. The perspective on the implication of the Bansong Group in the context of the tectonic evolution of the Korean Peninsula is largely divided into two points of view. The traditional view assumes that it was deposited as a product of the post-collisional Songrim Orogeny and then subsequently deformed by the Daebo Orogeny. This interpretation is based on the stratigraphic, paleontologic, and structural geologic research carried out in the Danyang Coalfield area. On the other hand, recent research regards the Bansong Group as a product of syn-orogenic sedimentation during the Daebo Orogeny. This alternative view is based on the zircon U-Pb ages of pyroclastic rocks distributed in the Yeongwol area and their structural position. However, both models cannot comprehensively explain the paleontological and geochronological data derived from Bansong Group sediments. This suggests the need for a new basin evolution model integrated from multidisciplinary data obtained through sedimentology, structural geology, geochronology, petrology, and geochemistry studies.
Sangho Won, Dal-Yong KongEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 397-408
Abstract : A total of 64 specimens of trace fossils were collected from the Jinju Formation of the construction site of Jinju Aviation Industrial Complex, and from the Haman Formation of Namhae Gain-ri fossil site. The fossils are continuously and regularly meandering sinecurve in shape. The fossil varies in morphology: width between 0.2 and 5.6 mm, wavelength between 1.5 and 28 mm, and amplitude between 0.9 and 7.9 mm; the Jinju specimens are commonly wider than the Haman ones. The ratio of wavelength to amplitude is more or less regular regardless of width of the specimen, and the linear correlation of the ratios shows that the Jinju specimens fit better than the Haman specimens. Taking all morphometric parameters, specimens in all size ranges are temporarily identified as ichnospecies Cochlichnus anguineus. In order to obtain more distinct and clearer images of Cochlichnus, we selected two specimens and applied a new imaging technology RTI. For photography of the trace fossils, 50 to 80 images were taken per set with photometric lighting close to the surface and horizontally. RTI technology clearly showed that the images of tiny fossils were improved: the surface contrast become sharper and messy and unnecessary information disappeared. Currently, RTI technology is used in many fields including preservation of cultural properties and archaeology. As a consequence, we hope to apply this technique to the field of paleontology, especially to the study of trace fossils of very small size.
Jung-Eun Kim, Won Hyun JiEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 409-419
Abstract : Acid mine drainage(AMD) treatment is classified as both passive and active treatment. During the treatment, about 5,000 tons of neutralization sludge is generated as a by-product per year in Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of sludge generated from physico·chemical treatment processes as an active treatment from 5 different sources (D, H, S, T, Y) and the possibility of the sludges being recycled. The sludges have a pH range of 5.86 ~ pH 7.89, and a water content range of 51% ~ 82%. Most of particle sizes were less than 25 μm. In analysis of inorganic elements, the concentration of Al, Fe, and Mn were between 1,189 mg/kg ~ 129,344 mg/kg, 106,132 mg/kg ~ 338,011 mg/kg, and 3,472 mg/kg ~ 11,743 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of As and Zn in sludge-T, Cd in sludge-D, Ni in sludge-H, Zn in sludge-S, and Cd in sludge-Y exceeded the soil contamination standards of Korea. The results from 2 separate kinds of leaching test, the Korea Standard Leaching Test(KSLT) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure(TCLP), showed that all the sludges met the Korea groundwater standards. From the XRD and SEM-EDS analysis, the peaks of calcite and quartz were found in the sludges. The sludge also had a high proportion of Fe and O, and the majority of the composition was amorphous iron hydroxide.
Jin-Seok Kim, Seung Yeop Lee, Sang-Ho Lee, Jang-Soon KwonEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 421-433
Abstract : The final disposal of spent nuclear fuel(SNF) from nuclear power plants takes place in a deep geological repository. The metal canister encasing the SNF is made of cast iron and copper, and is engineered to effectively isolate radioactive isotopes for a long period of time. The SNF is further shielded by a multi-barrier disposal system comprising both engineering and natural barriers. The deep disposal environment gradually changes to an anaerobic reducing environment. In this environment, sulfide is one of the most probable substances to induce corrosion of copper canister. Stress-corrosion cracking(SCC) triggered by sulfide can carry substantial implications for the integrity of the copper canister, potentially posing a significant threat to the long-term safety of the deep disposal repository. Sulfate can exist in various forms within the deep disposal environment or be introduced from the geosphere. Sulfate has the potential to be transformed into sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria(SRB), and this converted sulfide can contribute to the corrosion of the copper canister. Bentonite, which is considered as a potential material for buffering and backfilling, contains oxidized sulfate minerals such as gypsum(CaSO4). If there is sufficient space for microorganisms to thrive in the deep disposal environment and if electron donors such as organic carbon are adequately supplied, sulfate can be converted to sulfide through microbial activity. However, the majority of the sulfides generated in the deep disposal system or introduced from the geosphere will be intercepted by the buffer, with only a small amount reaching the metal canister. Pyrite, one of the potential sulfide minerals present in the deep disposal environment, can generate sulfates during the dissolution process, thereby contributing to the corrosion of the copper canister. However, the quantity of oxidation byproducts from pyrite is anticipated to be minimal due to its extremely low solubility. Moreover, the migration of these oxidized byproducts to the metal canister will be restricted by the low hydraulic conductivity of saturated bentonite. We have comprehensively analyzed and summarized key research cases related to the presence of sulfates, reduction processes, and the formation and behavior characteristics of sulfides and pyrite in the deep disposal environment. Our objective was to gain an understanding of the impact of sulfates and sulfides on the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal repository.
Minsik Kim, Haein Shin, Wook-Hyun Nahm, Wonsuck KimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 435-445
Abstract : A delta is a depositional landform that is formed when sediment transported by a river is deposited in a relatively low-energy environment, such as a lake, sea, or a main channel. Among these, a delta formed at the confluence of rivers has a great importance in river management and research because it has a significant impact on the hydraulic and sedimentological characteristics of the river. Recently, the equilibrium state of the confluence area has been disrupted by large-scale dredging and construction of levees in the Nakdong River. However, due to the natural recovery of the river, the confluence area is returning to its pre-dredging natural state through ongoing sedimentation. The time-series data show that the confluence delta has been steadily growing since the dredging, but once it reaches a certain size, it repeats growth and retreat, and the overall size does not change significantly.
In this study, we developed a model to explain the sedimentation-erosion processes in the confluence area based on the assumption that the confluence delta reaches a dynamic equilibrium. The model is based on two fundamental principles: sedimentation due to supply from the tributary and erosion due to the main channel. The erosion coefficient that represents the Nakdong River confluence areas, was obtained using data from the tributaries of the Nakdong River. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using the developed model to understand how the confluence delta responds to changes in the sediment and water discharges of the tributary and the main channel, respectively. We then used annual average discharge of the Nakdong River's tributaries to predict the dynamic equilibrium positions of the confluence deltas. Finally, we conducted a simulation experiment on the development of the Gamcheon-Nakdong River delta using recorded daily discharge.
The results showed that even though it is a simple model, it accurately predicted the dynamic equilibrium positions of the confluence deltas in the Nakdong River, including the areas where the delta had not formed, and those where the delta had already formed and predicted the trend of the response of the Gamcheon-Nakdong River delta. However, the actual retreat in the Gamcheon-Nakdong River delta was not captured fully due to errors and limitations in the simplification process. The insights through this study provide basic information on the sediment supply of the Nakdong River through the confluence areas, which can be implemented as a basic model for river maintenance and management.
Yoon Kyung Kim, Ji Whan KimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 447-456
Abstract : Even after 2000, oil prices rose enough to be comparable to the past, but the impact on economic variables was relatively stable. Therefore, this study tries to empirically examine that the response of the Korean economy to oil prices has changed since the 1998 financial crisis, when there was a structural change in the Korean economy.
Through empirical analysis, it was tested that the influence of oil prices and producer prices on consumer prices had changed in the period before and after 1998, and that the influence of producer prices on the value-added ratio by industry sector also changed. This means that the transfer of the increase in production cost to consumer prices has been alleviated, and the impact on added value has also been alleviated. Various studies should be conducted to understand the causes of the empirical results, such as changes in the relationship between producer prices and consumer prices, factors in the industrial sector due to rising oil prices, and changes in products.
Yul Roh, Hyeonyi Jeong, Byungno Park, Chaewon Kim, Yumi Kim, Mina Seo, Haengsoo Shin, Hyunwook Kim, Yeji SungEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 457-473
Abstract : Asbestos has been produced, imported and used in various industries in Korea over the past decades. Since asbestos causes fatal diseases such as malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer, the use of asbestos has been generally banned in Korea since 2009. However, there are still many asbestos-containing materials around us, and safe management is urgently needed. This study aims to examine asbestos-related trend changes using major asbestos-related keywords based on the asbestos trend analysis using big data for the past 32 years (1991 to 2022) in Korea. In addition, we reviewed both domestic trends related to the production, import, and use of asbestos before 1990 and asbestos-related policies from 2023 to 2027. From 1991 to 2000, main keywords related to asbestos were research, workers, carcinogens, and the environment because the carcinogenicity of asbestos was highlighted due to domestic production, import, and use of asbestos. From 2001 to 2010, the main keywords related to asbestos were lung cancer, litigation, carcinogens, exposure, and companies because lawsuits were initiated in the US and Japan in relation to carcinogenicity due to asbestos. From 2011 to 2020, the high ranking keywords related to asbestos were carcinogen, baseball field, school, slate, building, and abandoned asbestos mine due to the seriousness of the asbestos problem in Korea. From 2021 to present (2023), the main search keywords related to asbestos such as school, slate (asbestos cement), buildings, landscape stone, environmental impact assessment, apartment, and cement appeared.
Jaeguk Jo, Seojin Kim, Jiseon Han, Su Kyoung Kim, Dongbok Shin, Byeongmoon Kwak, Juhyun Hong, Byeongyong Yu, Jinah LimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023; 56(4): 475-499
Abstract : To infer the provenance of raw iron materials utilized in iron production at the archaeological sites in Gyeongsang province, petrographic and geochemical analyses were conducted for smelting samples and major iron ores sourced from ore deposits. The smelting samples excavated from various iron archaeological sites were classified into different types according to their refining processes, such as iron bloom, iron bloom slag, pig iron, pig iron slag, forging iron flake, smithery iron, iron flake, and arrowhead. These samples exhibited discernable differences in their mineralogical components and texture. The enrichments of major elements such as aluminum and calcium in silicate minerals of the residual slags and the high contents of trace elements such as nickel and copper in some iron-making relics reflect the characteristics of raw iron ores, and thus can be regarded as potential indicators for inferring the provenance of source materials. In particular, the compositional ranges of Pb-Sr isotope ratios for the iron smelting samples were classified into three categories: 1) those exhibiting similar ratios to those of the raw iron ores, 2) those enriched in strontium isotope ratio, and 3) those enriched in both lead and strontium isotope ratios. The observed distinct Pb-Sr isotope characteristics in the iron smelting samples suggest the potential contribution of specific additives being introduced during the high-temperature refining process. These results provide a new perspective on the interpretation of the provenance study of the iron archaeological samples in Gyeongsang province, particularly in terms of the potential contribution of additives on the refining process.
Reta L. Puspasari, Daeung Yoon, Hyun Kim, Kyoung-Woong KimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023;56: 65-73
Seon Yong Lee, YoungJae Kim, Young Jae LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023;56: 23-53
Eun-Young AhnEcon. Environ. Geol. 2021;54: 659-670
Sei Sun Hong, Jin Young LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2021;54: 427-439