Yong Jae SuhEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(3): 247-253
Abstract : Natural halloysite is mostly found in the form of a tubular structure with a 15–125 nm internal lumen. This kaolin clay can be used for encapsulating a liquid ingredient of cosmetics and for immobilizing an inorganic solid-phase ingredient. In this paper, the encapsulation and immobilization procedures are introduced and two example applications are reviewed to demonstrate the usefulness of halloysite as a cosmetics carrier. It may help attract more interest in cosmetic applications of halloysite and thus spur more research on the utilization of natural clays.
So-Lim Park, So-Young Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Seong-Il Lim, Young-Do Nam and Il-Mo KangEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(3): 255-260
Abstract : There are more than 2000 minerals on earth, and it has been implemented in various fields such as environment, architecture, livestock, chemistry, pharmaceuticals. Clay minerals are considered that they can change the physical and chemical properties through the adsorption and release of metal ions. Although domestic deposit of non-metallic mineral resources is approximately ninety-six billion tons, its application is limited and has hardly been used in high value-added industries involved in medicine, medical supplies, and functional food materials. Bentonite and zeolite are already used for cosmetic purposes and also used in living goods and packing materials. However, direct application to the food industry is relatively very rare. Since records regarding the intake of minerals for foods and medicines are found in the old literatures, the utilization of non-metallic minerals as food materials appears to be highly profitable. According to the trends in patent research for food and mineral resources, the company plays a main role for the development of the food containing non-metallic minerals in USA, and the trends confirms that this industry is emerging. Here, we provided the information about domestic and foreign patent trend for food industries involved in mineral resources and the application of mineral resources in the food industries. We also covered the domestic regulation regarding usage of mineral resources in food, and proposed domestic application plan for food production using mineral resources in the future.
In Chul Kong, Yu Tal Shi, Min Kyung Lee and Il Mo KangEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(3): 261-271
Abstract : Toxicity results of metals, nanoparticles (NPs), and soils contaminated with metals were introduced on this review. Following methods were used: seed germination, bioluminescence, enzyme activity, and mutation. In general, different sensitivities were observed, depending on types of bioassays and pollutants. Among tested seeds, sensitivities of Lactucus and Raphanus were greater than others. Of single metal exposure, effect by As(III) was greater than others, and high revertant mutation ratio (5.1) was observed at 1 mg/L arsenite, indicating high mutagenicity. No general pattern was observed on the effect of metal mixture, but synergistic effect was observed with seeds. In case of soils, no correlation was observed between total metal contents and toxicity. Toxicity of NPs was observed as follows: CuO > ZnO > NiO > TiO2, Fe2O3, Co3O4. Especially, no considerable effects were observed by TiO2, Fe2O3, and Co3O4 under tested concentration (max. 1,000 mg/L). The evaluation results of interactive toxic effects using various bioassays may comprise a useful tool for the bioassessment of various environmental pollutants.
Jorge Acosta, Alexander Santisteban, Dina Huanacuni, Michael Valencia, Eder Villarreal, Chul-Ho Heo, Bum Han Lee and Hyeong-Tae NamEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(2): 161-168
Abstract : Total reported gold resources in Peru is about 192 Moz. Gold production in Peru was 4.9 Moz in 2013, which was ranked first in Latin America and sixth in the world. Historic cumulative gold production in Peru is 118 Moz, and production from main gold belts including Miocene epithermal belt, Carboniferous-Permian orogenic gold belt and Upper Cretaceous intrusion-related gold belt corresponds to 84%. Most of production areas are located in Northern part of Peru, which corresponds to 63.5% of the total domestic production. Annual production onces in Yanacocha mine and Alto Chicama were 1 Moz and 0.606 Moz in 2013, which were ranked first and second in Peru, respectively. Gold production in Peru is expected to be 6.5 Moz in 2017. To accomplish the expected production, ongoing 14 projects should be developed to the production stage in three years.
Jorge Acosta, Alexander Santisteban, Dina Huanacuni, Michael Valencia, Eder Villarreal, Chul-Ho Heo, Bum Han Lee and Hyeong-Tae NamEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(2): 169-175
Abstract : Silver production in Peru was 118 Moz in 2013, which was 3rd ranked in the world. Silver production mines which were ranked from 1st to 5th in Peru in 2013 were Antamina(16.7 Moz), Uchuchacua(12 Moz), Pallancata(7.6 Moz), Animón(7 Moz), and Arcata(5.4 Moz). Total reported silver resources in Peru is about 7,012 Moz, and resources from the belts of Miocene epithermal deposits and the belts of Miocene skarn, replacement and vein deposits are 4,812 Moz, which corresponds to 69% of total resources. There are 14 ongoing projects which will be developed to the production stage from 2014 to 2019. Through these projects, silver production in Peru is expected to be 148 Moz in 2017.
Jae Min Kim and Jung Chan ChoiEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(2): 177-185
Abstract : The objective of this study is to evaluate landslide hazard susceptibility and produce the landslide hazard maps for soil slope using checklists as a preliminary investigation method. Tables, proposed by NDMI (National Disaster Management Institute), are applied for slope stability assessment, and are comprised of checklists on soil slopes. Database including engineering properties of soil is constructed through the field survey and results from previous studies for The Mt. Hwangryoeng area at center of Busan. All data related to creating the thematic maps was carried out using ArcGIS 10.0. Results from using this method indicated that soil slope are evaluated from very stable to stable. Moderate stability has been partially presented along the edge of mountain. Results from landslide hazard maps can be used to prevent damage from landslides and facilitate appropriate land use planning.
Young-In KimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(1): 65-75
Abstract : The CBM(Coalbed Methane) development technology being developed in mid 1980s is the technology to produce the methane gas absorbed in the coal bed. CBM is easy to be developed and its coal deposit is abundant. Therefore, the CBM industry has a large potential as an energy source as well as to deal with the global regulations for reducing greenhouse gas emission. In order to produce coal, the CBM should first be developed as a preliminary action for mine security. So CBM is advantageous in reducing the global greenhouse gas as well as its advantage not being influenced by the changes in gas market. The ECBM (Enhanced Coalbed Methane) is a new technique producing the methane gas which is substituted and disorbed from coal by injecting CO2 or N2 gas into a coal bed. Especially, CO2-ECMB is a low-carbon, green-growth technology, so can expect to the effect of green gas reduction as well as the improved productivity of methane gas. CBM technology is being developed in about 40 nations including Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia and Viet Nam, and the coal output using this technology is continually being increased. The CBM is expected to contribute in changing the energy source paradigm from current coal & petroleum energy to unconventional gas.
Seong-Yong Kim and Jae-Wook LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(1): 77-88
Abstract : Advanced geological surveys and exploration activities were first carried out in Korea in 1884 in accordance with a treaty of friendship and commerce between Great Britain and Korea and a treaty of friendship and commerce between Germany and Korea. The first paper by Gottsche, C. was also published in a German Journal in 1886. Efforts toward independent acquisition of Western geological survey and exploration technology were actively promoted by the Korean Empire in the early 1900s, but were frustrated by the Japanese Empire. Systematic geological surveys and exploration were conducted in Korea by Japanese geologists during the Japanese occupation. A basic geological maps(61sheets), a bulletin on the geological survey of Korea, a bulletin and technical report on deposits in Korea, and a coalfield geological survey report were published during this period. Overall, the intentions under lying the geological surveys and exploration activities by foreigners in Korea prior to the Japanese occupation were questionable. However, the results of these surveys and explorations themselves can be evaluated as positive in terms of academic performance.
Jin Dong ChoEcon. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(1): 89-101
Abstract : The sour gas is natural gas containing components such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide that form acids when mixed with water. Element sulfur precipitates from sour gas when reservoir pressure and temperature decrease. According to the International Energy Agency, about 43% of the world’s natural gas reserves(2,580 tcf or 73.057 tcm), excluding North America, are sour. The sour gas is often derived from the Germanic word ‘sauer or acidic’ and the etymology referred to as ‘sour’. Sour gas requires special handling and infrastructure because it contains significant amounts of hydrogen sulphide, making it highly corrosive, flammable and explosive, and there fore more costly and dangerous to process. So the business of sour gas is affected by two important factors: the economic value of the gas, and the methods used in its production. According to be analyzed in the academic literature to sour gas(2000~2014) by the program of ‘web of science’, the research activities 145 papers in sour gas.
Sang Cheol Kil, Kwan Soon Park and Jin Dong Cho2014; 47(6): 673-681
Abstract : Recently, many countries in the world try to develop alternative energy sources, however, traditional hydrocarbon resources are still occupying most of the energy resources. Exploration demands for high technologies are increasing in the development of limited oil & gas resources field owing to the exhaustion of hydrocarbon resources for access area. Therefore, an effort for the development and the application of new technologies such as azimuth seismic survey, ocean-bottom seismic survey and marine controlled-source electromagnetic survey is necessary as well as an understanding of the existing technologies such as 2D/3D seismic survey. This dissertation is designed with the purpose of introducing marine hydrocarbon exploration technologies and analyzing their internalexternal researches, development and science information. In this study, we analised total 616 dissertations for the marine petroleum exploration released in the Sci-expanded DB of ‘web of science’ during the 2001~2014 periods.
Reta L. Puspasari, Daeung Yoon, Hyun Kim, Kyoung-Woong KimEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023;56: 65-73
Seon Yong Lee, YoungJae Kim, Young Jae LeeEcon. Environ. Geol. 2023;56: 23-53
Eun-Young AhnEcon. Environ. Geol. 2021;54: 659-670
Sei Sun Hong, Choon Oh Lee, Jaesoo Lim, Jin Young Lee, Ung San AhnEcon. Environ. Geol. 2021;54: 1-19