Review

  • Review Article2016-04-30

    0 109 458

    Pb and Zn in Peru: Supply Trend and Resource Amounts

    Jorge Acosta Ale, Alexander Santisteban, Dina Huanacuni, Seok-Jun Yang and Chul-Ho Heo

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(2): 135-145
    Abstract

    Abstract : Until 2014, 14 million tonnes of Pb (metal based) and 41 million tonnes of Zn (metal based) were produced in Peru. Representative two Pb-Zn metallogenic belts were known in Peru. They are lower Cretaceous-Paleocene VMS Cu-Zn-Au metallogenic belt and Miocene epithermal, skarn, replacement & polymetallic vein metallogenic belt. If four new mining projects were launched and additional three mining projects were prepared until 2017, it seems possible to produce 0.34 million tonnes of Pb and 1.5 million tonnes of Zn additionally. In Pb-Zn metallogenic belt in Peru, potential Zn amounts range from 9 to 6000 million tonnes with 0.1 to 14% Zn and potential Pb amounts range from 5 to 2800 million tonnes with 0.04 to 5.3% Pb.

  • Review Article2016-03-31

    0 117 673

    Analysis on New Research Opportunities and Strategies for Earth Sciences in
    the United States

    Seong-Yong Kim, Eun-Young Ahn, Jun-Hee Bae and Jae-Wook Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(1): 43-52
    Abstract

    Abstract : The essential role of the Division of Earth Sciences(EAR) in the Directorate of Geoscience(GEO) of National Science Foundation of America(NSF) is to support basic research aimed at acquiring fundamental knowledge of the Earth system that can be directly applied to the United States' strategic needs. The 2011 Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences(NROES) of the National Academy of Sciences(NAS) identified specific areas of the basic earth science research scope of the EAR that were poised for rapid progress during the next decade. Quantified by interdisciplinary approaches, the Committee highlighted the following topics relating to the EAR Deep Earth Processes and Surface Earth Processes sections: (1) the early Earth; (2) thermochemical internal dynamics and volatile distribution; (3) faulting and deformation processes; (4) interactions among climate, the Earth surface processes, tectonics, and deep Earth processes; (5) co-evolution of life, environment, and climate; (6) coupled hydrogeomorphic-ecosystem response to natural and anthropogenic change; and (7) interactions of biogeochemical and water cycles in terrestrial environments. We also promote future research challenges such as the critical zone studies. In order to promote more active such a huge future research challenges, additional research support policies are needed.

  • Review Article2016-03-31

    0 138 747

    Scientometric Analysis for Low Carbon Energy

    Mihn-Soo Oh, Sang-Cheol Kil and Jin-Dong Cho

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(1): 53-61
    Abstract

    Abstract : The lifestyle of human’s lives in the current society, it requires a tremendous amount of energy. In the recently, the international community has been progressing the energy technology revolution to combat the resource depletion, energy security and global warming. According to the academic literature to the low-carbon energy(2001~2015) by the program of ‘Web of Science’, the research activities of 869 papers are to be closely related to low-carbon energy. International joint research on low-carbon energy technologies was mostly conducted by the research center of the United Kingdom, China, the United States, the Netherlands and Japan.

  • Review Article2016-03-31

    0 121 1320

    The Study of Drilling Technology and Field Cases for Preventing A Lost
    Circulation in Fractured Reservoirs

    Hyun Tae Kim, Si Chan Hong*, Jae Pil Yoon and Yong Chan Park

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2016; 49(1): 63-75
    Abstract

    Abstract : The ratio of fractured reservoir is very high in oil & gas fields around the world. The demand of drilling technology for fractured reservoir is expected to increase continuously if oil and gas prices are economical. The purpose of the review study is to help operator or driller in selecting of proper drilling technology for preventing a lost circulation in the fractured formation. In order to achieve this goal, fractured reservoir(formation) they are classified into partial lost circulation formation and total lost circulation formation. In case of partial lost circulation formation, the drilling problem can be solved by using LCM(lost circulation material) mud additive and squeezing cement. For shallow depth, total lost circulation formation can be drilled safely and economically with casing drilling method. Also, for deeper depth, problems of total lost circulation in formation can be solved by applying mud cap, which is one of the drilling methods. This was confirmed through field application such as Italy’s Medusa-1 field and Qatar’s North field.

  • Review Article2015-12-31

    1 174 162

    Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru

    Seok-Jun Yang, Chul-Ho Heo and You-Dong Kim

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(6): 525-536
    Abstract

    Abstract : Trapiche project corresponds to the advanced exploration stage which is thought to be a part of various porphyry copper deposits occurring in the margin of Andahuyalas-Yauri metallogenic belt. This deposit is genetically related to the monzonitic porphyry intrusion and Oligocene breccia pipe. Mineralization consists of primary sulfides such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and molybdenite and secondary sulfides such as chalcocite, covellite and digenite. It occurs malachite, tenorite and cuprite as copper oxide. As a result of lixiviation or enrichment process, mineralization shows untypical zonation structure. Breccia and porphyry areas characterize the vertical zonation patterns. In the northern area, lixiviation zone, secondary enrichment zone, transitional zone and primary mineralized zone are distributed in northern area. In the western area of deposit, oxidation zone and mixed zones are narrowly occurred. Inferred resources of deposit is estimated to be 920 Mt @ 0.41% Cu with the cut-off grade of 0.15%.

  • Review Article2015-12-31

    3 77 1627

    The Coordinate Transformation of Digital Geological Map in accordance with the World Geodetic System (A Case Study of Chungju and Hwanggang-ri Sheets using ArcToolbox)

    Hyun-Joo Oh

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(6): 537-543
    Abstract

    Abstract : In Korea, the use of world geodetic system(WGS) has been mandated in year 2010. Accordingly, the national geographic information institute(NGIS) provides the digital maps according to the WGS. Nevertheless, most of the digital geological maps are still based on the Tokyo Datum(TD). Therefore, users should conduct 2D/3D geological spatial analysis after converting the coordinates of digital geological maps to WGS. The conversion process is often tedious and troublesome for certain users. Therefore, in this study, the method to transform coordinate from TD to WGS using ArcToolbox is introduced for users not familiar with the process. For a better appreciation, the Chungju and Hwanggang-ri digital sheets of 1:50,000 scale was chosen as an example. Here, Chungju and Hwanggang-ri sheets were defined based on the TD-central origin and TD-east origin, respectively. The two sheets were merged after the transformation of TD-east origin of Hwanggang-ri to the TD-central origin, and eventually transformed to WGS-central origin. The merged map was found to match exactly with the digital map(Daeso 367041). The problem of coordinate determination in previous digital geological maps was solved effectively. The proposed method is believed to be helpful to 2D/3D geological spatial analysis of various geological thematic maps.

  • Review Article2015-08-31

    0 156 804

    Patents Trend Analysis on Unconventional Oil and Gas Technologies

    Jun-Hee Bae, Jung-Kyu Park and Jae-Wook Lee

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(4): 361-369
    Abstract

    Abstract : Interest of unconventional Oil and Gas, which is produced in a different way, has been increasing due to exhaustion of traditional oil and gas. However production of unconventional Oil and Gas is closely related to its technology level. Accordingly in this research, we can analyze technology level of unconventional Oil and Gas with country/sector/year patent analysis. Through the result of this research, U.S is highest patent application national, patent application in oil sand is increasing. In addition, oil sands-realated patents and shale oil-realated patents applying actively in early 1970's and since the mid-1980's showed a decreasing trend. And patent application in unconventional oil and gas has been increasing due to the rise in the oil price 2000's.

  • Review Article2015-06-30

    0 153 4804

    Case Study of Pharmaceutical Ingredients Derived from Clay Minerals

    Su-Eon Jin, Jangik Ike Lee and Sung-Joo Hwang

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(3): 221-229
    Abstract

    Abstract : Clay minerals have been used in pharmaceutical industries as active ingredients and excipients without pharmacological activity such as diluents, emulsifying agents, viscosity-increasing agents, and lubricants. For example, bentonite, kaolin, magnesium aluminum silicate, and talc are generally and extensively used pharmaceutical ingredients, which are restrictedly regulated by Pharmacopoeias. We discuss the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of clay minerals. In addition, we introduce the cases of pharmaceutical applications of clay minerals. From this review, pharmaceutical applications of clay minerals can be one of strategies for the development of high valueadded products from clay minerals.

  • Review Article2015-06-30

    0 129 1525

    Mineral Medicine Described in the Oriental Medicine Book and Mineral Medicines Applicable to Atopic Dermatitis Treatment

    Jiwon Bak and Donghee Kim

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(3): 231-240
    Abstract

    Abstract : A total of 93 mineral medicines are mentioned in the Chinese Bonchodogam(本草圖鑑). In Donguibogam(東醫寶鑑), 77 mineral medicines are listed, where 18 are from soil origin, 4 from gem origin, and 55 mineral medicines were originated from stone. In the Herblogy(本草學), which is the textbook used in most oriental medicine colleges in Korea, a total of 23 mineral medicines are listed. Of those, Cinnabaris, Alumen, Melanteritum, Realgar, Orpimentum, Sulfur, Lime from Donguibogam, additional eight which are Talcum, Calomelas, Minium, Calamina, Stannum, Hydrargyrum, Lithargyrum, Hydrargyrum Chloratum from Bonchodogam and Gypsum, Natrii Sulfas, Talcum, Cinnabaris, Sulfur, Arsenicum Sublimatum, Realgar, Calomelas, Minium, Calamina, Borax, Aurum, Glauberitum from Herblogy were selected as the mineral medicine applicable as external atopic dermatitis treatment. Most of the mineral medicines were generally regarded as toxic materials, and therefore, they were elaborately processed to remove toxicity before use. In accordance, it is necessary to discuss how to effectively remove toxicity from toxic mineral medicines. In addition, detoxification can be applied to those mineral medicines classified based on the index material or high content compounds, and if efficacy can be evaluated through various analytical methods, this can be applied to diverse inflammatory diseases as well as atopic dermatitis.

  • Review Article2015-06-30

    0 121 2154

    Overview of Helicobacter pylori and Treatment Options

    Young Goo Song

    Econ. Environ. Geol. 2015; 48(3): 241-246
    Abstract

    Abstract : Helicobacter pylori is an important transmissible human pathogen found on the luminal surface of the gastric epithelium. The organism can persist in the stomach indefinitely and causes gastroduodenal inflammation that may proceed to atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Standard triple therapy which consists of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) plus two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) is now generally used in Korea, however, eradication rates of H. pylori has been decreasing due to increasing antibiotic resistance. In this review, current second-line treatment regimens, difficult problems on treatment, necessity of local target therapy, applicability of clay minerals as a drug delivery system (DDS), and a new therapeutic strategy and its study plans will be discussed.

KSEEG
Apr 30, 2024 Vol.57 No.2, pp. 107~280

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