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Digital Documentation and Short-term Monitoring on Original Rampart Wall of the Gyejoksanseong Fortress in Daejeon, Korea
대전 계족산성 원형성벽의 디지털기록화 및 단기모니터링 연구
Econ. Environ. Geol. 2019 Apr;52(2):169-88
Published online April 30, 2019;
Copyright © 2019 the Korean society of economic and environmental gelology.

Sung Han Kim, Chan Hee Lee* and Young Hoon Jo
김성한 ·이찬희* ·조영훈

Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea
공주대학교 문화재보존과학과
Received March 27, 2019; Revised April 11, 2019; Accepted April 11, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This study was carried out unmanned aerial photography and terrestrial laser scanning to establish digital database on original wall of Gyejoksanseong fortress, and measured ground control points for continuity of the monitoring. It also performed precise examination with the naked eye, unmanned aerial photogrammetry, endoscopy, total station and handy measurement to examine the structural stability of the original walls. The ground control points were considered as a point where visual field can be secured, 3 points were selected around each of the south and north walls. For the right side of the south original wall, aerial photogrammetry was conducted using drones and a deviation analysis of 3-dimensional digital models was performed for short-term monitoring. As a result, the two original walls were almost matched in range within 5mm, and no difference indicating displacement of stones was found, except for partial deviation. Regular monitoring of the areas with structural deformation such as bulging, weak and fracture zone by precisely examining with the naked eye and using high-resolution photo data revealed no distinct change. The inner foundation observed through endoscopy found out that filling stones of the original walls were still remained, while most filling soil was lost. As a result of measuring the total station focusing around the points with structural deformation on the original walls, the maximum displacements of the north and south walls were somewhat high with 6.6mm and 3.8mm, respectively, while the final displacements were relatively stable at below 2.9mm and 1.4mm, respectively. Handy measurement also did not reveal clear structural deformation with displacements below 0.82mm at all points. Even though the results of displacement monitoring on the original walls are stable, it is hard to secure structural stability due to the characteristics of ramparts where sudden brittle fracture occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct conservational scientific diagnosis, precise monitoring, and structural analysis based on the 3-dimensional figuration information obtained in this research.
Keywords : original wall, digital documentation, structural stability, displacement value, precise monitoring


June 2019, 52 (3)